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© Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   1 THE RESEARCH PROCESS.

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Presentation on theme: "© Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   1 THE RESEARCH PROCESS."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   1 THE RESEARCH PROCESS

2 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   2 The Research Process Gravetter & Forzano:  The process of planning and conducting a research study involves using the scientific method to address a specific question.  During the research process, researcher moves from a general idea to actual data collection and interpretation of the result  Along the way, the researcher is faced with a series of decision about how to proceed  each choice has disadvantages as well as disadvantages

3 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   3 Formulating a research problem Formulating a research problem Conceptualizing a research design Conceptualizing a research design Constructing an instrument for data collection Constructing an instrument for data collection Selecting a sample Writing a research proposal Collecting data Processing data Writing a research report Variables and hypotheses: definition and typology Considerations and steps in formulating a research problem Literature review Research design: functions Methods and tools of data collection Sampling theory and designs Study designs Validity and reliability of the research tool Field test of the research tool Editing of the data Developing a code book Coding Contents of the research proposal Methods of data processing; Use of computers and statistics Principles of scientific writing WhatHowConducting of the study Operational steps Required theoretical knowledge Required intermediary knowledge The Research Process

4 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   4 Writing a research report Processing data Collecting data Writing a research proposal Selecting a sample Constructing an instrument for data collection Conceptualizing a research design Formulating a research problem Step I Step II Step III Step IV Step V Step VI Step VIII Step VII RESEARCH PROCESS

5 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   5 The Research Process (Gravetter, 2009) 1.Find a Research Idea: Select a Topic and Find a Hypothesis 2. Define and Measure Variables 3. Identify Participants or Subjects 4. Select a Research Strategy 5. Select a Research Design 6. Conduct the Study 7. Evaluate the Data 8. Report the Result 9. Refine or Reformulate Your Research Idea

6 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   6 Step I Formulating a research problem Step II Step III Step IV Step V Step VI Step VIII Step VII Considerations & research steps in formulating research problem Variables & hypotheses: definition and typology Literature review What HowConducting of the study

7 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   7 Step 1: Formulating a Research Problem  Is the first step in the research process, tell about what you intend to research  Main Function: to decide what you want to find out about  menentukan arah penelitian: study design, measurement procedures, sampling strategy, etc.  Masalah penelitian ditentukan oleh: sumber dana, waktu yg tersedia, keahlian dan pengetahuan peneliti mengenai bidang yang diteliti

8 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   8 Step 1: Find a Research Idea: select a topic and find a hypothesis  Typically involves two parts: ○ Selecting a general topic area ○ Reviewing the literature in that area to find a specific research question or hypothesis Gravetter & Forzano

9 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   9 Finding an idea for research study involves 2 parts: 1)Selecting a general topic area  sources: everyday experience, books, journal articles, or class work (i.e.: human development, perception, social interaction, etc). ○ Without intrinsic interest to sustain motivation, it is very easy for a researcher to get tired or bored, and give up before the research is completed ○ Original topic area will guide you through the literature and help to decide which research studies are important and which are not relevant

10 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   10 Step 1: Find a Research Idea: select a topic and find a hypothesis  Reviewing the literature in that area to find a specific research question or hypothesis “ what is questions are still unanswered” ○ Characteristics of good research hypothesis: Logical  establish a connection between your research and the research result that have been obtained by others Testable  It must be possible to observe and measure all variables involve. It must involve real situations, events, and individuals; not imagery or hypothetical events/situations  JFK

11 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   11 Step 1: Find a Research Idea: select a topic and find a hypothesis  Reviewing the literature in that area to find a specific research question or hypothesis ○ Characteristics of good research hypothesis: Refutable  must be possible to obtain results that are contrary to the prediction. The hypothesis allows the potential for the outcome to be different from the prediction

12 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   12 Step 1: Find a Research Idea: select a topic and find a hypothesis  Reviewing the literature in that area to find a specific research question or hypothesis ○ Characteristics of good research hypothesis: Positive  hypothesis must make a positive statement about the existence of something: existence of relationship, existence of a difference, existence of treatment effect the basic nature of science is to assume that something does not exist until there is enough evidence to demonstrate that it actually does exist. ex. If we fail to find relationship = we fail to find convincing evidence (not conclude that relationship doesnot exist)

13 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   13 Exercise:  Is the following hypothesis testable, refutable, and positive? Hypothesis: Married couple who are regularly attend to religious services have more stable relationship than couples who do not.

14 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   14 Step 2: Define and Measure Variables  The variables identified in the research hypothesis must be defined in a manner that makes it possible to measure  By defining the variables so they can be observed and measured, we are transforming the hypothesis into a specific well-defined that can be tested by making empirical observations Example: aggressive behavior  how it will be measured?  fighting, mock, etc (Consider the characteristic of the participant to be measured) Gravetter & Forzano

15 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   15 Step II Conceptualizing a research design Step I Step III Step IV Step V Step VI Step VIII Step VII Literature review Research design: functions Study designs What HowConducting of the study

16 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   16 Step 2: Conceptualizing a Research Design  Desain penelitian: rancangan tentang berbagai hal untuk melaksanakan penelitian, misalnya cara pengumpulan data, sampel, teknik analisis dll.  The strength of what you find largely rest on how it was found  Main function: to explain how you will answer to your research questions

17 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   17 Step 4: Select a Research Strategy  Choosing research strategy involves deciding on the general approach you will take to evaluate your research hypothesis  Usually determined by one of two factors: ○ The type of question asked Ex: a) Is there a relationship between sugar consumption and activity level for preschool children? b) Will increasing the level of sugar consumption for preschool children cause an increase in their activity level? ○ Ethics and other constraints Gravetter & Forzano

18 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   18 Step 5: Select a Research Design  Involve making decisions about the specific methods and procedures you will use to conduct the research study ○ One individual vs one group of individuals? ○ Make a series of observation of the same individuals over a period of time vs compare the behaviors of different individuals at the same time?

19 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   19 Constructing an instrument for data collection Step I Step II Step IV Step V Step VI Step VIII Step VII Methods & tools of data collection Validity & reliability of the research tool Field test of the research tool Step III What HowConducting of the study

20 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   20 Step III: Constructing an Instrument for Data Collection  Research Instrument/Research tool= a means of collecting information for your study  Metode pengumpulan informasi antara lain: - Observation forms - Interview schedules - Interview guides - Test

21 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   21 Step III: Constructing an Instrument for Data Collection  Steps to be followed: 1) how are you going to collect data  primary data, or secondary data? 2) construct a research instrument, or select an already constructed one

22 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   22 Step IV Selecting a sample Step I Step II Step III Step V Step VI Step VIII Step VII Sampling theory & designs What HowConducting of the study

23 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   23 Step IV: Selecting a Sample Sampel dan populasi  Sampling: is the process of selecting a few (a sample) from a bigger graoup (the sampling population) to become the basis for estimating or predicting the prevalence of unknown piece of information, situation or outcome regarding the bigger group (Kumar, 2005, p. 164)  Tujuan sampling: untuk mendapatkan subjek yang merupakan sebagian dari populasi yang dapat mewakili karakteristik populasi

24 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   24 Step 3: Identify Participants or Subjects  The individuals who take part in research studies are called participants tf they are human and subjects if they are nonhuman  You must decide whether you will place any restriction on the characteristic of participants  Example: Preschool children OR 4-year-old boy from two-parent, middle-income household who have been diagnosed with a specific learning disability  Determine: number of participants/subjects, where and how to recruit them Gravetter & Forzano

25 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   25 Step V Writing a research proposal Step I Step II Step III Step IV Step VI Step VIII Step VII Contents of the research proposal What HowConducting of the study

26 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   26 Step V: Writing a Research Proposal  Proposal penelitian: overall plan tells a reader about the research problem and how you are planning to investigate and the argument to choose them  Main function: to detial the operational plan for obtaining answers to your research questions ○ What you are proposing to do ○ How you plan to proceed ○ Why you selected the proposed strategy

27 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   27 Step V: Writing a Research Proposal Content of research proposal:  Pernyataan tentang tujuan penelitian  Permasalahan dan hipotesis penelitian yang akan diuji  Desain penelitian yang digunakan  Lokasi penelitian  Alat ukur yang digunakan  Besar sampel dan teknik pengambilan sampel  Prosedur pengolahan data  Sistematika penulisan laporan penelitian  Masalah dan keterbatasan dari penelitian (feasibility of the study)  Jadwal pelaksanaan penelitian

28 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   28 Step VI Collecting data Step I Step II Step III Step IV Step V Step VIII Step VII Field test of the research tool Editing of the data Developing a code book Coding What HowConducting of the study

29 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   29 Step VI: Collecting Data  Mengumpulkan data untuk dapat menarik kesimpulan penelitian, misalnya melakukan wawancara, menyebarkan kuesioner, melakukan FGD atau diskusi kelompok, melakukan observasi

30 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   30 Step 6: Conduct the Study  Ready to collect data ○ Laboratory or in the field (real world)? ○ Individually or in groups?  = Implement the decision about manipulating, observing, measuring, controlling, and recording the different aspects of the study Gravetter & Forzano

31 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   31 Step VII Processing Data Step I Step II Step III Step IV Step V Step VI Step VIII Methods of data processing; Use of computers & statistics What HowConducting of the study

32 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   32 Step VII: Processing Data  Merupakan tahap mengolah data dan menganalisis hasil  Cara mengolah data yang dikumpulkan tergantung pada 2 hal yaitu: ○ Type of information – descriptive, quantitative, qualitative or attitudinal ) ○ The way you want to communicate your findings to your readers

33 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   33 Step 7: Evaluate the Data  Once the data have been collected  use various statistical methods to examine and evaluate the data ○ Drawing graphs ○ Computing means or correlation ○ Determine whether the results can be generalized to the rest of population

34 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   34 Step VIII Writing a research report Step I Step II Step III Step IV Step V Step VI Step VII Principles of scientific writing What HowConducting of the study

35 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   35 Step VIII: Writing a Research Report  Melaporkan tentang apa yang telah dilakukan, apa yang telah ditemukan, dan kesimpulan yang diperoleh dari hasil penelitian

36 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   36 Step 8: Report the Results  One important aspect of the scientific method is that observations and result must be public  Two reasons to report result are: ○ The result become part of general knowledge base that other people can use the answer questions or to generate new research ideas ○ The research procedure can be replicated or refuted by other researchers Gravetter & Forzano

37 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   37 The Research Process (Gravetter, 2009) 1.Find a Research Idea: Select a Topic and Find a Hypothesis 2. Define and Measure Variables 3. Identify Participants or Subjects 4. Select a Research Strategy 5. Select a Research Design 6. Conduct the Study 7. Evaluate the Data 8. Report the Result 9. Refine or Reformulate Your Research Idea

38 © Metpenstat I - FPsiUI Langkah-langkah Penelitian   Research Process   38 Step 9: Refine or Reformulate Your Research Idea  Most research studies generate more questions than they answer  If the results support the original hypothesis, it does not mean that we find a final answer  Result that support a hypothesis lead to new questions by one of following route: ○ Test the boundaries of the result ○ Refine the original research question


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