Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 3 The Developing Child James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers."— Presentation transcript:
Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 3 The Developing Child James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
The Developing Child zDevelopmental Psychology ystudy of changes across the life span
Developmental Issues zNature versus Nurture yHow is our development influenced by our heredity (nature) and by our experience (nuture)? zContinuity versus Stages yIs developmental change gradual and continuous or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages? zStability versus Change yDo we grow into older versions of our early selves or do we become new persons?
Genetic Influences zX- Chromosomes ysex chromosome found in both males and females yfemales have two, males have one yan X-chromosome from each parent produces a female zY-Chromosomes ysex chromosome found only in males ywhen paired with a X-chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child
The Developing Child zTestosterone ymost important of the male sex hormones yboth males and females have it yadditional testosterone in males xstimulates growth of male sex organs in the fetus xstimulates development of male sex characteristics during puberty zGender ycharacteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female
Prenatal Development zZygote yfertilized egg yenters a 2 week period of rapid cell division ydevelops into an embryo zEmbryo ydeveloping human organism from 2 weeks through 2nd month zFetus ydeveloping human organism from 9 weeks to birth
Prenatal Development zTeratogens yagents that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm ychemical, e.g. alcohol, some medicines, cocaine, nicotine yviral, e.g. HIV, Rubella zFetal Alcohol Syndrome yphysical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by drinking in pregnancy
The Newborn zRooting Reflex ytendency to turn head, open mouth, and search for nipple when touched on the cheek zPreferences yhuman voices and faces xfacelike images--> ysmell and sound of mother preferred
Infancy and Childhood At birth3 months15 months Cortical Neurons zMaturation ybiological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior yrelatively uninfluenced by experience ysets the course for development while experience adjusts it
Infancy and Childhood zBabies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobile- and can retain that learning for a month (Rovee- Collier, 1989).
Infancy and Childhood zRats reared in an environment enriched with playthings show increased development of the cerebral cortex (Rosenzweig, et al., 1972). Impoverished environment Enriched environment
Infancy and Childhood zPlasticity ythe brain’s capacity for modification xevidence for plasticity brain reorganization following damage –especially in children experiments on the effects of experience on brain development
Infancy and Childhood zA finger-tapping task activates more motor cortex neurons after training (right).
Infancy and Childhood zCognition ymental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering zSchema ya concept or framework that organizes and interprets information zAssimilation yinterpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas zAccommodation yadapting one’s current schemas to incorporate new information
Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 yearsSensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety About 2 to 6 years About 7 to 11 years About 12 through adulthood Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language development Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Formal operational Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development zObject Permanence ythe awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived zConservation ythe principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects ypart of Piaget’s concrete operational reasoning zEgocentrism ythe inability of the preoperational child to take another’s point of view
Cognitive Development zHabituation ydecreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation ynewborns become bored with a repeated stimulus, but renew their attention to a slightly different stimulus
Cognitive Development 10 20 0 30 40 50 60 70 80 Familiar stimulus Novel stimulus Percentage of time spent looking
Cognitive Development 0 40 30 20 10 12345678 Time spent looking (seconds) Presentation
Cognitive Development zBaby Mathematics yShown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare longer (Wynn, 1992) 1. Objects placed in case. 2. Screen comes up. 3. One object is removed. 4. Possible outcome: Screen drops, revealing one object. 4. Possible outcome: Screen drops, revealing two object.
Social Development zStranger Anxiety yfear of strangers that infants commonly display ybeginning by about 8 months of age zAttachment yan emotional tie with another person yshown in young children by seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Social Development zHarlow’s Surrogate Mother Experiments yMonkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother
Social Development zCritical Period yan optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development zImprinting ythe process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life zTemperament ya person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
Social Development zMonkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken when placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers.
Social Development zBasic Trust (Erik Erikson) ya sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy ysaid to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers zSelf-Concept ya sense of one’s identity and personal worth
Social Development zGroups of infants who had and had not experienced day care were left by their mothers in a unfamiliar room. 0 20 40 60 80 100 184.108.40.206.511.513.52029 Percentage of infants who cried when their mothers left Age in months Day care Home
Social Development zPercentage of children experiencing school problems in the previous year Percentage of children Live with both biological parents Live with formerly married mother and no father Repeated school grade Expelled or suspended Treated for problems in last year 0 15 10 5 20
Social Development- Child-Rearing Practices zAuthoritarian yparents impose rules and expect obedience y“Don’t interrupt” y“Why? Because I said so.” zAuthoritative yparents are both demanding and responsive yset rules, but explain reasons yencourage discussion
Social Development- Child-Rearing Practices zPermissive ysubmit to children’s desires ymake few demands yuse little punishment zRejecting-neglecting ydisengaged yexpect little yinvest little
Social Development- Child-Rearing Practices zThree explanations for correlation between authoritative parenting and social competence (3) Some third factor may be influencing both parents and child. (1) Parent’s behavior may be influencing child. Authoritative parents (2) Child’s behavior may be influencing parents. Self-reliant, Socially competent child Authoritative parents High education, ample income, harmonious marriage, common genes Authoritative parents Self-reliant, Socially competent child Self-reliant, Socially competent child
Gender and Child-Rearing zGender Identity yone’s sense of being male or female zGender-Typing ythe acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role zSocial Learning Theory ywe learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished zGender Schema Theory ychildren learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female yadjust behavior accordingly
Gender and Child-Rearing Rewards and Punishments Observation and Imitation of models Gender-typed behavior Social learning theoryGender schema theory Cultural learning of gender Gender schema (looking at self and World through a gender “lens”) Gender-organized thinking Gender-typed behavior