Presentation on theme: "Myers PSYCHOLOGY Seventh Edition in Modules Module 8 Infancy and Childhood James A. McCubbin, Ph.D. Clemson University Worth Publishers."— Presentation transcript:
Myers PSYCHOLOGY Seventh Edition in Modules Module 8 Infancy and Childhood James A. McCubbin, Ph.D. Clemson University Worth Publishers
Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development Maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience At birth3 months15 months Cortical Neurons
Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobile--and can retain that learning for a month (Rovee- Collier, 1989, 1997).
Cognitive Development zDevelopmental psychologists try to describe how children think and evaluate the world. zThe work of Piaget had a great impact in this area. zHe developed a theory of cognitive development.
Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Schemas are the frameworks that we use to organize and interpret information.
Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Assimilation interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas Accommodation adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
Schema: Dogs are four legged animals Scenario: child sees a cat Assimilation z The child thinks that the cat is a dog. Accommodation z The child changes their schema to include both dogs and cats as having four legs.
Schema – Everything with wheels is a truck. Scenario – Child is presented with a bicycle. Assimilation z He thinks the bicycle is a type of truck. Accommodation z He changes his concept of things with wheels to include trucks and bikes.
Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 yearsSensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety About 2 to 6 years About 7 to 11 years About 12 through adulthood Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language development Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Formal operational Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Object Permanence the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
Characteristics of the sensorimotor stage zThe child acts on the environment by knocking down blocks, making sounds, finding toes. zThe child sees an object and reaches. zThe child realizes that objects still exist although the objects is no longer seen. zThe child cries when the parent is no longer present. This is called stranger anxiety.
Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Baby Mathematics Shown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare longer (Wynn, 1992) 1. Objects placed in case. 2. Screen comes up. 3. Object is removed. 4. Impossible outcome: Screen drops, revealing two objects. 4. Possible outcome: Screen drops, revealing one object.
Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Conservation the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
Conservation Experiments zConservation of liquid quantity zConservation of mass zConservation of area zConservation of number
Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Egocentrism the inability of the preoperational child to take another’s point of view Theory of Mind people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict Autism a disorder that appears in childhood Marked by deficient communication, social interaction and understanding of others’ states of mind
Characteristics of the preoperational stage zThe child starts to represent the world internally through language. zThe child cannot take another point of view. zThe child thinks all objects have life. zThe child thinks human beings created everything. zThe child uses inaccurate logic by assuming that the characteristics of a specific idea can be applied to a similar idea – birds fly – airplanes fly – birds must be airplanes. zThe child classifies objects by only one trait – typically color.
Concrete Operational Stage zThe child can now understand simple operations performed on concrete reality. zThey have a mental schema for quantity, mass, volume and number. zChange in shape does not affect quantity. zThey can comprehend math transformations.
Characteristics of the concrete operational stage zThe child begins to understand that objects can change shape without other changes in the characteristics. zThe child understands and performs operations that go in the other direction. zThe child draws conclusions from a number of specific facts. zThe child classifies objects into larger classes of objects. zThe child classifies by a number of characteristics.
Formal Operational Stage zOccurs around adolescence zManipulate complex mental representation zThink in terms of abstractions zMetacognition
Characteristics of the Formal Operational stage zThe child thinks abstractly. zThe child hypothesizes. zThe child can get specific facts from a generalization.
Assessing Piaget Pros z We learn best when we build on what we already know. z New reasoning abilities require previous abilities. z Children don’t reason with adult logic. Cons z He underestimated children. z Development is continuous not in stages. z Children go through the stages more rapidly than was estimated.
Examples z1. Jake looks at a string of plastic beads; six are white and ten are blue. Jake is asked how many white beads there are and answers correctly – six. He is then asked how many plastic beads there are and he answers ten. Stage Age Concept
Social Development Stranger Anxiety fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning by about 8 months of age Attachment an emotional tie with another person shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and displaying distress on separation
2. Carrie can solve an algebraic equation. Stage – age - concept z3. Pierre loves to play peek-a-boo. He laughs when someone puts a blanket over his face and then pulls it away. yStage – age – concept. z4. Paul sees a piece of ribbon tied in a bow. He unties the bow and stretches it to its full length. Which is longer – they are the same. yStage –age - concept
Social Development Harlow’s Surrogate Mother Experiments Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother
Social Development Critical Period an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development Imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
Social Development Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken when placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers.
Attachment zWork of Mary Ainsworth zStudied attachment between infants and mothers z3 types of attachment ySecure attachment yAvoidant attachment yAnxious attachment In all studies she observed infants’ reactions when placed into a strange, novel situation when their parent left them alone for short period of time and then returned.
Secure attachment zThese infants usually appear active and happy. zThey are willing to explore a new room if the mother is present. They warm up quickly to a stranger who talks with the mother. zThey are not greatly disturbed if the mother is absent for a brief period of time. zWhen the mother returns to the room the infant becomes anxious and runs to the mother’s side.
Avoidant attachment zThese infants are not even upset by separation from the mother. They do not cry when she leaves. zWhen she returns, the infant may ignore her or react casually to her presence. The infant may even avoid her. zIf the infant is distressed they will not seek contact.
Anxious attachment zThese infants do not explore a strange room full of toys. zThey cry and cling to the mother even before being separated from her. zThey act suspicious of strangers and get very upset if the mother leaves the room. zWhen she returns they pout or even cry. zThey show extreme stress when she leaves but resist being comforted when she returns.
Social Development Groups of infants left by their mothers in a unfamiliar room (from Kagan, 1976) Percentage of infants who cried when their mothers left Age in months Day care Home
Social Development Basic Trust (Erik Erikson) a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers Self-Concept a sense of one’s identity and personal worth
Social Development: Child- Rearing Practices Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience “Don’t interrupt.” “Why? Because I said so.” Permissive submit to children’s desires, make few demands, use little punishment Authoritative both demanding and responsive set rules, but explain reasons and encourage open discussion
Parenting examples zFor each scenario determine an authoritarian response, a permissive response, and an authoritative response. z1. Your 7 year old daughter wants to sleep over at her friend’s house with three other girls. You have met the friend but not her parents. z2. You decide to run away from home. You are caught just as you are heading out the door. z3. Your 4 year old has coloured on the wall for the first time. z4. You have missed your curfew by 30 minutes.
Developmental Issues zThere are three major issues in the study of developmental psychology. z1. Continuity and stages yHow is our development continuous, and how do we develop in stages? z2. Stability and change yWhat remains stable across our development, and how do we change? z3. Nature and nurture yHow does the interaction of nature and nurture affect development?