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Leading Schools of the Future: Supporting Knowledge Management at the School Level and Beyond Lisa A. Petrides, Ph.D. Institute for the Study of Knowledge.

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Presentation on theme: "Leading Schools of the Future: Supporting Knowledge Management at the School Level and Beyond Lisa A. Petrides, Ph.D. Institute for the Study of Knowledge."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leading Schools of the Future: Supporting Knowledge Management at the School Level and Beyond Lisa A. Petrides, Ph.D. Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education (www.iskme.org) March 3, 2007

2 Leading through Learning How do we learn? How do teachers learn? How do schools learn? Individual learning is primary component of what an organization knows Yet, how we structure schools has been based on premises that are becoming obsolete. Schooling is a top-down endeavor Real knowledge is held by a few Information should be tightly controlled

3 The Learning Paradox: Schools Today We “dole” out information, in agreed upon chunks (a course, lesson, textbook, or curriculum) Information is disseminated through a one-way direction We monitor this “learning” through rigid assessments and accountability mandates

4 Knowledge Management (KM) is an approach or methodology that consciously integrates people, processes and technology for the purpose of collecting, sharing, and using information—with the goal of building capacity for continuous learning. Therefore, KM can be used to enable schools to become self-reflective organizations that learn. How Can Knowledge Management be Useful to This Process?

5 The Building Blocks of KM: D-I-K-A Data can be thought of as the expanse of facts or quantitative measures. Data become information when people place them in context Knowledge is the deeper sense-making that occurs when context-specific information is applied to real problems Action is when knowledge-seeking leads to change and embedded feedback cycles (continuous improvement).

6 KM: How It Works Access to reliable data to measure and assess.

7 KM Building Blocks Access to reliable data to measure and assess. Effective information use and sharing.

8 Ineffective Information Practice!

9 KM Building Blocks Access to reliable data to measure and assess. Effective information use and sharing.

10 KM Building Blocks Access to reliable data to measure and assess. Effective information use and sharing. Sharing knowledge cross-functionally to ask questions and solve problems proactively.

11 KM Building Blocks Access to reliable data to measure and assess. Effective information use and sharing. Sharing knowledge cross-functionally to ask questions and solve problems proactively. Turning knowledge into action as a means to improve student success and organizational effectiveness.

12 The D-I-K-A Model: Continuous Cycle of Learning Information Action Data Knowledge

13 KM can be applied across all functions within schools, but more effective if cross-functional Strategic planning Curriculum and instruction Human resources Financial services

14 Examples from Our Research: KM Stories Some efforts are successful Some fail All are learning processes that should be supported

15 KM Story #1: Cross-functional Collaboration within a School District A new Chief Operations Officer of a large school district was told that his salary and benefits would be linked to student success He started to going to meetings where he and his staff could engage with teachers to better understand their challenges in the classroom. Outcome: This was something that had never happened before. But after this experience, a new school-wide cross- functional committee was developed that met regularly to better address the alignment of financial resources to student success.

16 KM Story #2: Student Data Not Available in Timely Fashion Teachers were asked by the school to give students an assessment in December, to be able to make mid-year changes in their teaching plans to better meet the needs of their students. Yet, teachers did not receive the assessment data until mid-April when it was too late to change their course of direction within the classroom. Outcome: In this case, the district did not have the capacity to meet these needs, due to antiquated information system.

17 KM Story #3: A Classroom Teacher Using KM as a Way to Increase Capacity for Learning Began with conversations about existing data Presented problem to parents using data Monitored success of students over the semester Brought in parents and students to review data and help think through next steps. Outcome: The teacher began to regularly engage students in their own learning progress, as part of the problem- solving process.

18 KM Story #4: KM for Curriculum Building OER Commons, a single point of entry to a network of freely available content, with a highly customizable resource environment for engaging with teaching and learning materials. Web 2.0 features that allow instructors and learners to personalize the materials and collaborate with each other through tags, ratings, comments, reviews, and social networking. Outcome: A collective knowledge base about the use of educational materials is being built, from which all educators and learners can benefit.

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20 What Type of School Are You?

21 Type of Organization: Data- Challenged School Characteristic:Pre-data Evidence:No consistent use of data. Data silos exist throughout the school.

22 Disabling an Information Silo

23 Type of Organization: Data- Challenged School Data-Driven School Characteristic:Pre-dataHighly reliant on reporting and compliance. No feedback loop. Evidence:No consistent use of data. Data silos exist throughout the school. Focus on compliance and external mandates. Information available for top-level decision- makers only.

24 Type of Organization: Data- Challenged School Data-Driven School Culture of Inquiry Characteristic:Pre-dataHighly reliant on reporting and compliance. No feedback loop. Feedback loop provides self- reflection, but no action taken. Evidence:No consistent use of data. Data silos exist throughout the school. Focus on compliance and external mandates. Information available for top-level decision- makers only. Information conduits in place. Coordinated efforts to meet internal and external demands for information.

25 Type of Organization: Data- Challenged School Data-Driven School Culture of Inquiry Continuous Learning School Characteristic:Pre-dataHighly reliant on reporting and compliance. No feedback loop. Feedback loop provides self- reflection, but no action taken. Knowledge into action, iterative processes in place. Evidence:No consistent use of data. Data silos exist throughout the school. Focus on compliance and external mandates. Information available for top-level decision- makers only. Information conduits in place. Coordinated efforts to meet internal and external demands for information. Cross- functional teams determine policy. Impact on policy, feeds new models.

26 Possible Unintended Consequences Status quo is challenged Upsets organizational hierarchies How a school accumulates and circulates data is influenced by the core values of the organization. Not an easy thing to change.

27 Barriers to Successful KM Data silos that block the flow of information Data hoarding or sabotaging Mistrust of data (due to real or perceived factors, such as the misuse of data) No incentives or rewards to use data Data are tightly controlled through hierarchical lines of authority

28 Start with data, but don’t stop there! Are data primarily focused on reporting functions? Are data primarily used to comply with external mandates? Do people scurry for data only when there is an effort to improve efficiency of operations? Are data available only to top-level decision- makers? Are information systems designed and implemented with primarily administrative functions in mind?

29 Ten Strategies That Can Be Used to Support KM at the School Level 1. Have practices in place that clearly demonstrate how data use is linked to the overall mission of the organization. 2. Identify patterns of information use (and non- use) as a way to establish and promote processes that encourage the use and sharing of information. 3. Provide incentives for teachers to share and use what they know (or ensure there are no disincentives).

30 Ten Strategies That Can Be Used to Support KM at the School Level 4. Provide training in how to use and analyze data for decision-making (in practice). 5. Develop strategies for individuals and teams to help transform tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge. 6. Allow communities of practice to self-organize through common interests and problem-solving desires.

31 Ten Strategies That Can Be Used to Support KM at the School Level 7. Adequately fund and support new information technologies, aligning them with cross-functional goals. 8. Ensure widespread access to data and information in easy to query formats for non-experts. 9. Promote information conversations that span across departments rather than serve to reinforce divisions among them. 10. Include teachers and staff in information technology planning, design, and implementation.

32 In Conclusion: Five Key Take-Aways Align mission and goals with information use, as a way to support policies or strategic plans Put structures in place that support horizontal and vertical flows of information Develop information strategies that are linked to transparent processes Provide meaningful incentives and rewards Support using data, even if the desired results are not immediately achieved.

33 Thank you! More information:


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