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Chapter 13 Renewable Energy and Conservation. Overview of Chapter 13  Direct Solar Energy  Indirect Solar Energy  Wind  Biomass  Hydropower  Geothermal.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Renewable Energy and Conservation. Overview of Chapter 13  Direct Solar Energy  Indirect Solar Energy  Wind  Biomass  Hydropower  Geothermal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Renewable Energy and Conservation

2 Overview of Chapter 13  Direct Solar Energy  Indirect Solar Energy  Wind  Biomass  Hydropower  Geothermal  Tidal  High and Low Technology Energy Solution

3 Direct Solar Energy  Perpetually available  Varies with latitude, season, time of day, and cloud cover

4 Heating Buildings and Water  Passive solar energy  System of putting the sun’s energy to use without requiring mechanical devices to distribute the collected heat  Certain design features can enhance passive solar energy’s heating potential  South facing windows (in N. hemisphere)  Well insulated buildings  Attic vents  Overhangs and solar sunspaces


6 Solar Sunspace  Utilizes passive solar energy to heat and cool homes  Can be added to existing homes

7  Typically used to heat water  8% of energy in US is used to heat water  This technology could supply large amount of US energy demand Heating Buildings and Water  Active Solar Energy  System of collecting and absorbing the sun’s energy, and using pumps or fans distribute the collected heat

8 Heating Buildings and Water  Solar Thermal Electric Generation  Means of producing electricity in which the sun’s energy is concentrated by mirrors or lenses to either heat a fluid filled pipe or drive a Stirling engine  More efficient than other solar technologies  No air pollution  No contribution to global warming or acid precipitation

9 Solar Thermal Electric Generation

10 Photovoltaic Solar Cells  A wafer or thin film that is treated with certain metals so that they generate electricity when they absorb solar energy  No pollution and minimal maintenance  Used on any scale  Lighted road signs  Entire buildings

11 Photovoltaic Solar Cells  Can be incorporated into building materials  Roofing shingles  Tile  Window glass  More economical than running electrical lines to rural areas

12 Cost of Electrical Power Plants  Alternative power sources are becoming competitive with traditional power sources

13 Indirect Solar Energy  Biomass  Plant materials, such as wood, crop wastes and animal waste, used as fuel  Wind energy  Electric or mechanical energy obtained from surface air currents caused by solar warming of air  Hydropower  Form of renewable energy reliant on flowing or falling water to generate mechanical energy or electricity

14 Biomass  Contains energy from sun via photo- synthesizing plants  Oldest known fuel to humans - still used by half the world’s population  Renewable when used no faster than it can be produced  Can convert to biogas or liquids  Ethanol and methanol  Clean fuel

15 Biomass  Advantages  Reduces dependence on fossil fuels  Often uses waste materials  If trees are planted at same rate biomass is combusted, no net increase in atmospheric CO 2  Disadvantages  Requires land, water and fossil fuel energy  Can lead to  Deforestation  Desertification  Soil erosion

16 Wind Energy  World’s fastest growing source of energy  Wind results from sun warming the atmosphere  Varies in direction and magnitude  New wind turbines harness wind efficiently  Most profitable in rural areas with constant wind

17 Wind Energy  No waste - clean source of energy  Biggest constraints:  Cost  Public resistance (NIMBY)  Few environmental problems  Kills birds and bats

18 Hydropower  Most efficient energy source (90%)  Most widely used form of solar energy  19% of world’s energy  Traditional hydropower  Suited only to large dams  New technology  Utilize low flow systems

19 Hydropower

20 Other Indirect Solar Energy  Ocean waves  Produced by winds  Has potential to turn a turbine- and create electricity  Ocean Temperature Gradients  Use difference in temperature of surface and deep water to create electricity

21 Other Renewable Energy Sources  Geothermal energy  Energy from the Earth’s interior for either space heating or generation of electricity  Tidal Energy  Form of renewable energy that relies of the ebb and flow of the tides to generate electricity

22  Enormous energy source  1% of heat in upper 10 km of earth crust is equal to 500x the earth’s fossil fuel sources Geothermal Energy  From Hydrothermal Reservoirs  Created by volcanoes  Reservoirs used directly for heat or to generate electricity

23 Geothermal Energy  From hot, dry rock  Geothermal heat pumps  Use difference in temperature between surface and subsurface  Great for heating buildings  Expensive installation

24 Tidal Energy  Typical difference between high and low tide is 1–2 ft  Narrow bays may have greater variation  Potential energy difference between low and high tide can be captured with  A dam across a bay  A turbine similar to a wind turbine

25 High and Low Technology Energy Solutions  Most promising “energy sources” are energy conservation and energy efficiency  Energy Conservation  Using less energy by reducing energy use and waste  Energy Efficiency  Using less energy to accomplish a given task

26 Hydrogen as a Fuel Source  Hydrogen gas (H 2 )  Comprised of two hydrogen molecules  Large amounts of available energy  Explodes when combined with oxygen releasing energy and forming water

27 Hydrogen as a Fuel Source  Advantages  Very high energy density  Can be produced from any electrical source  Electrolysis (see illustration on next slide)  No greenhouse gases and few other pollutants  Can be use in vehicles  Disadvantages  Highly volatile (requires special storage)  Relatively inefficient

28 Hydrogen as a Fuel Source - Electrolysis

29 Hydrogen Fuel Cell  Fuel cell  Device that directly converts chemical energy into electricity  Requires hydrogen from a tank and oxygen from the air  Similar to a battery, but reactants are supplied from outside source

30 Future Applications of Fuel Cells  Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  Hydrogen is not yet readily available as a fuel source  61 hydrogen fueling stations in US  Batteries in cells phones or laptops

31 Energy Consumption Trends and Economics

32  Super-insulated buildings (right)  Energy efficient appliances  Automobiles  Aircraft technology  Compact Fluorescent light bulbs  Condensing furnaces Energy Efficient Technologies

33 Cogeneration  Production of two useful forms of energy from the same fuel  Most effective on small scale

34 Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings

35 Saving Energy at Home

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