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Chapter 13 Renewable Energy and Conservation. Overview of Chapter 13 o Direct Solar Energy Heating Buildings and Water Heating Buildings and Water Solar.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Renewable Energy and Conservation. Overview of Chapter 13 o Direct Solar Energy Heating Buildings and Water Heating Buildings and Water Solar."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Renewable Energy and Conservation

2 Overview of Chapter 13 o Direct Solar Energy Heating Buildings and Water Heating Buildings and Water Solar Thermal Electric Generation Solar Thermal Electric Generation Photovoltaic Solar Cells Photovoltaic Solar Cells o Indirect Solar Energy Biomass Energy Biomass Energy Wind Energy Wind Energy Hydropower Hydropower o Other Renewable Energy Sources Geothermal Energy Geothermal Energy Tidal Energy Tidal Energy o High and Low Technology Energy Solution Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Hydrogen and Fuel Cells o Energy Efficiency

3 Direct Solar Energy o Varies with latitude, season, time of day, and cloud cover

4 Heating Buildings and Water o Passive solar energy system of putting the suns energy to use without requiring mechanical devices to distribute the collected heat system of putting the suns energy to use without requiring mechanical devices to distribute the collected heat o Certain design features can enhance passive solar energys heating potential South facing windows (in N. hemisphere) South facing windows (in N. hemisphere) Well insulated buildings Well insulated buildings Attic vents Attic vents Overhangs and solar sunspaces Overhangs and solar sunspaces

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6 Solar sunspace o Utilizes passive solar energy to heat and cool homes o Can be added to existing homes

7 Heating Buildings and Water o Active Solar Energy System of collecting and absorbing the suns energy, and using pumps or fans distribute the collected heat System of collecting and absorbing the suns energy, and using pumps or fans distribute the collected heat o Most common Series of collection devices on roofs or in fields Series of collection devices on roofs or in fields Typically a black panel or plate Typically a black panel or plate o Used to heat water

8 Heating Buildings and Water o Solar Thermal Electric Generation Means of producing electricity in which the suns energy is concentrated by mirrors or lenses to either heat a fluid filled pipe or drive a Stirling engine Means of producing electricity in which the suns energy is concentrated by mirrors or lenses to either heat a fluid filled pipe or drive a Stirling engine o More efficient than other solar technologies o Benefits No air pollution No air pollution No contribution to global warming or acid precipitation No contribution to global warming or acid precipitation

9 Solar Thermal Electric Generation

10 Photovoltaic Solar Cells o Thin cells are treated with certain metals so that they generate electricity when they absorb solar energy o Convert sunlight directly into energy o No pollution and minimal maintenance o Used on any scale Lighted road signs Lighted road signs Entire buildings Entire buildings

11 Photovoltaic Solar Cells o Can be incorporated into building materials Roofing shingles Roofing shingles Tile Tile Window glass Window glass

12 Cost of Electrical Power Plants

13 Indirect Solar Energy o Biomass Plant materials used as fuel Plant materials used as fuel Ex: wood, crop wastes, sawdust, and animal wastes Ex: wood, crop wastes, sawdust, and animal wastes Contains energy from sun via photosynthesizing plants Contains energy from sun via photosynthesizing plants Renewable when used no faster than it can be produced Renewable when used no faster than it can be produced o Can convert to biogas or liquids Ethanol and methanol Ethanol and methanol

14 Advantages and Disadvantages of Biomass o Advantages Reduces dependence on fossil fuels Reduces dependence on fossil fuels Often uses waste materials Often uses waste materials If trees are planted at same rate biomass is combusted, no net increase in atmospheric CO 2 If trees are planted at same rate biomass is combusted, no net increase in atmospheric CO 2 o Disadvantages Requires land, water and energy Requires land, water and energy Can lead to Can lead to Deforestation Deforestation Desertification Desertification Soil erosion Soil erosion

15 Indirect Solar Energy o Wind Energy Electric or mechanical energy obtained from surface air currents caused by solar warming of air Electric or mechanical energy obtained from surface air currents caused by solar warming of air Worlds fastest growing source of energy Worlds fastest growing source of energy o Wind results from sun warming the atmosphere Varies in direction and magnitude Varies in direction and magnitude o New wind turbines harness wind efficiently

16 Wind Energy Kills birds and bats Kills birds and bats o No waste- clean source of energy o Biggest constraints Cost Cost Public resistance Public resistance o Most profitable in rural areas with constant wind o Few environmental problems

17 Indirect Solar Energy o Hydropower Form of renewable energy reliant on flowing or falling water to generate mechanical energy or electricity Form of renewable energy reliant on flowing or falling water to generate mechanical energy or electricity o Suns energy drive hydrologic cycle o Most efficient energy source (90%)

18 Hydropower o Generates 19% of worlds energy o Traditional hydropower Only suited for large dams Only suited for large dams o New technology May be able to utilize low flow waterways May be able to utilize low flow waterways o Problems with Dams Changes natural flow of rivers Changes natural flow of rivers Disrupts migratory fish patterns Disrupts migratory fish patterns Potential dam breaks Potential dam breaks

19 Other Indirect Solar Energy o Ocean waves Produced by winds Produced by winds Has potential to turn a turbine- and create electricity Has potential to turn a turbine- and create electricity o Ocean Temperature Gradients Use difference in temperature of surface and deep water to create electricity Use difference in temperature of surface and deep water to create electricity

20 Other Renewable Energy Sources o Geothermal Energy Energy from the Earths interior for either space heating or generation of electricity Energy from the Earths interior for either space heating or generation of electricity o From Hydrothermal Reservoirs (left) Created by volcanoes Created by volcanoes Reservoirs used directly for heat or to generate electricity Reservoirs used directly for heat or to generate electricity

21 Geothermal Energy o From hot, dry rock o Geothermal heat pumps Use difference in temperature between surface and subsurface Use difference in temperature between surface and subsurface Great for heating buildings Great for heating buildings Expensive installation Expensive installation

22 Other Renewable Energy Sources o Tidal Energy Form of renewable energy that relies of the ebb and flow of the tides to generate electricity Form of renewable energy that relies of the ebb and flow of the tides to generate electricity o Typical difference between high and low tide is 1-2 ft Narrow bays may have greater variation Narrow bays may have greater variation o Energy can be captured with A dam across the bay A dam across the bay A turbine similar to a wind turbine A turbine similar to a wind turbine

23 Hydrogen as a Fuel Source o Advantages to Hydrogen as a fuel source Very high energy density Very high energy density Can be produced from any electrical source Can be produced from any electrical source Electrolysis (see illustration on next slide) Electrolysis (see illustration on next slide) No greenhouse gases and few other pollutants No greenhouse gases and few other pollutants Can be used in vehicles Can be used in vehicles o Disadvantages to Hydrogen as a fuel source Highly volatile (requires special storage) Highly volatile (requires special storage) Relatively inefficient Relatively inefficient

24 Hydrogen as a Fuel Source- Electrolysis

25 Hydrogen Fuel Cell o Fuel cell Device that directly converts chemical energy into electricity Device that directly converts chemical energy into electricity Requires hydrogen from a tank and oxygen from the air Requires hydrogen from a tank and oxygen from the air o Similar to a battery, only the reactants are supplied from outside source

26 Future Applications of Fuel Cells o Vehicles Not yet commonly available Not yet commonly available Hydrogen is not yet readily available as a fuel source Hydrogen is not yet readily available as a fuel source o Batteries in cell phones or laptops

27 Energy Consumption Trends and Economics

28 Energy Efficient Technologies o Super-insulated buildings (right) o Energy efficient appliances o Automobiles o Aircraft technology o Compact Fluorescent light bulbs o Condensing furnaces

29 Cogeneration o Production of two useful forms of energy from the same fuel

30 Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings

31 Saving Energy at Home

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