Presentation on theme: "Scientific Method. Initial Observation Use your senses to observe -be objective (measure), not subjective (opinions) –See, hear, touch, taste, smell,"— Presentation transcript:
Initial Observation Use your senses to observe -be objective (measure), not subjective (opinions) –See, hear, touch, taste, smell, etc. Can also use tools to measure (label numbers) –Temperature, length, volume, etc.
Observations: Two Types Qualitative – describe what we observe –EX: The flower has white petals. –EX: Bob has blue eyes. Quantitative –measure what we observe –EX: The flower has seven petals. –EX: Bob has two eyes.
Try to make quantitative observations out of qualitative ones. Qualitative: The dead fish is smelly. Quantitative: You could ask a person to rate the “smelliness” from 1-5.
TIPS FOR GOOD OBSERVATIONS 1.Be specific 2.Use numbers 3.Use terms others would understand 4.Avoid using emotions, good/bad, or opinions 5.This is not the time for critical evaluations…just state the facts.
Inference Reasonable conclusions or a hypothesis from observations you’ve made. Use judgments based on past experiences or and prior knowledge. What inference can you make here?
Which is the better observation? It is 58 o F in the room. It is cool in the room. The iguana likes lettuce. The iguana consumed 90% of the lettuce. The bacteria is yucky. The bacteria has a slimy appearance and smells of sulfur.
State the Question “What is the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable?” What is the independent variable here? What is the dependent variable here?
Which are Better Problem Statements? What is the effect of temperature on the height of plants grown in soil? How tall do plants get? Why does that fish always swim to the top? What is the effect of oxygen content on the water on the swimming location of a fish in a tank?
1 st do “Inferences or Observations” WORKSHEET 2 nd GET A DOZEN CRICKETS WITH A CUP (hand on top)-Put them in the tank w/lid, please. 3 rd Fill out “Cricket Observations and Inferences” and Problem Statement Worksheet Obser vation Infere nce Proble m Stat
PLAN CRICKET BEHAVIOR EXPERIMENT Laptops (2/lab table) Work on Cricket Fact Sheet Decide for your cricket behavior experiment: -problem statement -experiment set-up (tomorrow will be a test run) (Enlarge to read captions)
Hypothesis “If…then…” If producing oxygen bubbles in photosynthesis is related to light color, then green light will increase photosynthesis oxygen bubbles to form. Dependent variable Independent variable prediction
Hypothesis 1. Must be testable – some way to check its validity 2. Must be falsifiable – must be some experiment that could show that it is not true (may not prove to be false, just have to be able to test that)
Can you test these to be falsifiable? 1. Animals are better than plants. 2. The average tree height on the HS campus is the same as on the MS campus. 3. How many angels does it take to dance on the head of a pin?
DO WORKSHEET TO PRACTICE WRITING IF…THEN HYPOTHESES
Experiment A. Independent Variable -what you change goes on the X-axis of the graph B. Dependent Variable -what changes as a result of what you did – goes on the Y-axis of the graph
Independent Variable? Dependent Variable?
Experiment Constants-all the things in the experiment that stay the same same size Petri dishes Same agar medium Same type of bacteria
What constants are there in this experiment?
Control – the part of the experiment that does not have the independent variable in it Use for reference, comparison Often the normal condition
What is the control?
L-added oxygen M-control(no gas added) R-added carbon dioxide
What is the control set-up?
Do you think a placebo is a control? (inert pill, one without the drug) EX: some take Celebrex®, some take a sugar pill
Run the tests Record the data graphs charts video write observations measurements
Celebrex – Placebo Experiment Results Have we proven that Celebrex® (without a doubt) improves arthritis pain? What might be another explanation? Can we prove it false? Placebo
Conclusion Agree or disagree with the hypothesis The 10% spray produced taller plants.
Repeat the Experiments Other scientists must be able to repeat your experiment with similar results to prove it true. OR they might prove it false.
NOW YOU WILL DESIGN AND RUN AN EXPERIMENT RECEIVE CRICKET BEHAVIOR EXPERIMENT HANDOUT LAB GROUPS OF 4 (5) BEHAVIOR VARIABLE PLAN SET-UP RUN 3 TRIALS WRITE RESULTS
DUE DATES: Day 1 August (Thurs. and Fri.) Day 2 August 29 (Mon.) Day 3 August 30 (Tues.) Day 4 Aug. 31-Sept. 1 (BLOCK) Day 5 Sept. 9 – (Fri.)
On Your Lab Table is the Behavior Variable A. Courtship or sexual B. Agnostic behavior C. Phototaxis D. Territorial E. Food-foraging F. Stimulus kinesis. HOMEWORK: Look up at least 5 web sites (see Sheldon Web Page) to research your Cricket Behavior Variable. (more is better) Print out at least 3. Write a summary page of ideas to design your experiment. (List or paragraph of at least 10 sentences.)