Presentation on theme: "Putting Your Research Ideas Into Practice"— Presentation transcript:
1Putting Your Research Ideas Into Practice FH Health Research Intelligence Unit
2Who we are:Dr. Peter Hill ( ), Vice-President, Academic, Research, and Clinical System Redesign. Susan Chunick ( ), Director, Research Administration and Development (RAD). Rosa Haywood ( ), RAD administrative assistant.Michael Wasdell ( ), Grant Facilitator-Writer.Rae Spiwak ( ), Epidemiologist.
4RESEARCH ETHICS BOARD STATUS REPORT 01 October 2007 Total Studies 388(From 2005 September 01 to Date)ACTIVE STUDIES = PENDING APPROVAL = 18Active Studies by Department AreaAddiction Services1FinanceNeurology3Pharmacy17AdministrationFood & NutritionNursing5Prevention/PromotionAnaesthesiaHealth Services2NutritionProfessional Practice4Cardiology27Home HealthObstetrics6Psychiatry18Community SiteInfection ControlOccupational TherapyPublic Health PreventionCritical Care (ICU)13Information ManagementOncologyResidency FacilityDecision Support ServiceInternal MedicineOrthopaedics15RespiratoryDiversity ServicesLaboratory-CytologyPalliative CareSocial WorkElder ResearchMedicinePathologySurgeryEmergency7Mental HealthPaediatricsSystemsAnalysis/PerformanceEthicsMultiple Sclerosis8People ServiceWorkplace HealthFamily MedicineNephrologyPerinatalNon FH Research
5FH Health Research Intelligence Unit How can we help? Grant Facilitator-WriterConducting a search for funding opportunitiesAutomatic notification of new funding sources and deadlinesIdentifying a research teamPreparing letters of intentIdentifying resources required for conducting researchFormulating the research budgetWriting the grant application in collaboration with researchersUnderstanding FH and funding agency requirements regarding preparation of specific documents
6FH Health Research Intelligence Unit How can we help? EpidemiologistSpecifying the research goal, objectives and hypothesisIdentifying measurable outcomesSpecifying the variables for analysisIdentifying sources of dataDeveloping data collection tools for quantitative or qualitative studiesDeveloping the statistical analysis planAnalyzing the dataUnderstanding how to use statistical software, such as SPSS
7Workshop Activities What is research? Research process Introductory statistics for practical useAssignment of work groupGroup work:Practical Exercise for identifying:Research GoalsStatistical TestsLevels of DataSharing of group work
8What is research?“….the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested.” (Leedy and Ormrod, 2001)
9Research Types CONCLUSION-ORIENTED RESEARCH Epidemiological ExperimentalEffectiveness/EvaluationTheory GenerationHealth ServicesDECISION-ORIENTED RESEARCHTechnical Analyses – systematic reviewsPolicy Analysis & ResearchEvaluation Research
10Research Uses29% of total epidemiological consults involve decision-oriented research
11Fraser Health Research Involving Human Subjects Research involving human subjects is defined as any systematic investigation (including pilot studies, exploratory studies, and academic course work assignments) designed to contribute to generalizable knowledge.Generalizable knowledge consists of facts, theories, principles or relationships, or the accumulation of information on which they are based, that can be corroborated by accepted scientific methods of observation and inference.
12Research Characteristics 1. Originates with question/problem2. Guided by the hypothesis, question or problem3. Follows a specific plan or procedure.4. Accepts certain critical assumptions5. Requires collection and interpretation of data6. Cyclical in nature
13Types of Health Research Biomedical ResearchClinical ResearchHealth Services/Systems ResearchPopulation Health Research
14Health Research Biomedical Research To understand normal and abnormal functioning at the molecular, cellular, organ system and whole body levels.Includes the development of tools and techniques and new therapies or devices that can improve health and quality of life up to the point where they are tested on human subjects.Does not have a diagnostic or therapeutic orientation.i.e. Looking at spontaneous mutations in cells.
15Health Research Clinical Research Targets improving the diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury.Focus on the health and quality of life of individuals.Includes research on animal models of human disease, clinical trials and other therapeutic interventions.i.e. Testing the effectiveness of a new medication
16Health Research Health Services/Systems Research Multidisciplinary fieldAims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health professionals and the health care system.Interventions at the level of practice and policy.i.e. Evaluating a new intervention for improving patient flow.
17Health Research Population Health Research Studies the impact of social and environmental factors on the health of populations/subpopulations.May examine social, cultural, environmental, occupational, and economic factors that determine health status.Research data is used to identify areas where the health of a population can be improved.i.e. Statistics Canada Community Health Survey.
18Research is a process 1. Generate idea 2. Conduct literature review 3. Refine research question4. Plan research methodology5. Create research proposal6. Apply for funding7. Apply for ethics approval8. Collect and analyze data9. Draw conclusions and relate findings
19Conducting Research Evaluation Guidelines Significance and relevance to healthKnowledge of the field (cited literature)Clear, testable hypothesis or central research problemOriginality and innovation in concept or approachFeasibility of work plan
20Significance and Relevance to Health Research begins with the identification of a problem/knowledge gap and formulation of a research question.Identifying this problem can be the hardest part of research.The problem or question does not have to be complex.Where to obtain a research ideaExperience in your area of specialty.Knowledge of the relevant literature and issues.Practice guidelines.Journal editorials and review articles.
21Significance and Relevance to Health Good research proposals should:Address an important question.State the problem clearly and completely.Advance knowledge.How do you know if your idea is good?Talk to your peers and other experts in your field.Obtain an outside opinion.Look to the literature to see if it has already been studied.
22Knowledge of the Field Sources of Research Literature Journal articles – PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, etcConference papers - Conference ProceedingsDissertations - Dissertation AbstractsGray literature (reports, working papers, government documents)
23Knowledge of the Field What to look for Systematic Reviews An approach to summarizing the medical literature where the methods undertaken to conduct the search are reported so that it may be replicated and updated.Meta-analysisA review that uses quantitative methods to summarize the results.Review ArticlesOriginal Articles
24Clear, Testable Problem/Hypothesis Factors to consider when developing an hypothesis or statement of the research question:PhaseTheory Building (creating new theory)Testing (testing a question or hypothesis)Theory Extension (adding to existing theory)
25Clear, Testable Problem/Hypothesis Factors to consider when developing an hypothesis or statement of the research question:PurposeExplorationDescriptionExplanationPredictionHypothesis Testing
26Clear, Testable Problem/Hypothesis Factors to consider when developing an hypothesis or statement of the research question:Unit of AnalysisIndividualDyadGroupOrganizational UnitIndustry Segment / SectorCommunitySociety
27Clear, Testable Problem/Hypothesis Factors to consider when developing an hypothesis or statement of the research question:DefinitionPopulation (entire group)Sampling Frame (how your sample will be selected)Sample (sample of entire group)
28Clear, Testable Problem/Hypothesis Factors to consider when developing an hypothesis or statement of the research question:Time HorizonCross- Sectional (snap-shot)Longitudinal (over time)Retrospective (past tense)
29Clear, Testable Problem/Hypothesis Factors to consider when developing an hypothesis or statement of the research question:Study SettingNatural (i.e. Participant observation in natural setting)Contrived (i.e. artificial setting)Researcher Influence (i.e. Randomized Control Trial)
30Clear, Testable Problem/Hypothesis Factors to consider when developing an hypothesis or statement of the research question:Research Design – depends on the research questionDescriptiveAnalyticExperimentalQuasi-ExperimentalQualitative
32Classification of Research Studies Observational Studies:Descriptive Studies:Focus on describing populations and describing the relationship between variablesAnalytic Studies:Make inferences about the population based on a random sample.Experimental Studies:Test relationships between exposures and outcomes. Investigator has direct control over study condition and exposure status.
33Type of study is selected according to the purpose of research. Hierarchy of StudiesType of study is selected according to the purpose of research.If you want to control the status of an exposure or intervention, in order to examine causality or effectiveness, choose an experimental study.If you want to make inferences about a population based on a sample, or look at the association between variables, choose an analytic study.If you want to describe a population, choose a descriptive studyINFORMATION
34What about Quasi-Experimental? Quasi=AlmostLacks random assignmentMany types:Pretest Posttest Nonequivalent Group- Both a control group and an experimental group are compared. But, groups are chosen and assigned out of convenience (rather than randomization).Ex. Examining two groups of students. One group signs up for an educational program, one group does not.Would measure all of the students’ grades prior to the start of the program and then again after the program.Those students who participated would be our treatment group; those who did not would be our control group.
35Clear, Testable Problem/Hypothesis Method:Subjects/Patients/Units of MeasureSample size and justification (power, statistical tests)Inclusion criteria (who will you include?)Exclusion criteria (who will you exclude?)ProcedureDetailed account of how the research design is executed (methods)Provides information on timelines and measuresSufficient information so that it can be replicatedAnalysisStatistical analysis is appropriate for the research design and will answer the research question
37Originality and Innovation in Concept or Approach Open up a new areaProvide a unifying frameworkResolve a long-standing questionThoroughly explore an areaChallenge existing knowledgeExperimentally validate a theoryProduce an efficient systemProvide needed empirical dataDerive superior algorithmsDevelop new methodologyDevelop a new tool
38Feasibility of Work Plan TimeHuman ResourcesTechnologyMoney
39Basic Statistics for Putting your Research Ideas into Practice
40What is statistics?The collecting, summarizing, and analyzing of data.The term also refers to raw numbers, or “stats”, and to the summarization of data.Example: Frequencies
41Research begins when there is a question. Different kinds of questions:Descriptive:How many men workat Fraser Health?How many hours a weekdo employees spend attheir desks?Inferential:Does having a science degree help students learn statistical concepts?What risk factors most predict heart disease?
42Types of StatisticsDescriptive Statistics: describe the relationship between variables.E.g. Frequencies, means, standard deviationInferential Statistics: make inferences about the population, based on a random sample.
43Types of VariablesVariables can be classified as independent or dependent.An independent variable is the variable that you believe will influence your outcome measure.A dependent variable is the variable that is dependent on or influenced by the independent variable(s). A dependent variable may also be the variable you are trying to predict.
44Example A researcher wants to study the effect of Vitamin C on cancer. Vitamin C would be the independent variable because it is hypothesized that it will have an effect on cancer, and cancer would be the dependent variable because it is the variable that may be influenced by Vitamin C .Independent Variable Direction of Effect Dependent VariableVitamin C Increase or Cancer decrease of certain effect
45VariablesIn research, the characteristic or phenomenon that can be measured or classified is called a variable. There are 3 levels of variables:NominalOrdinalContinuous/Scale
46Levels of Data Nominal= categorical E.g. Apples and pears, gender, eye colour, ethnicity.Data that is classified into categories and cannot be arranged in any particular order.Nominal=Categorical=DichotomousOrdinal= data ordered, but distance between intervals not always equal. E.g. Low, middle and high income, or rating a brand of soft drink on a scale of 1-5.Continuous/Scale= equal distance between each interval. Also called interval.
47Statistical Test Selection Selecting the appropriate statistical test requires several steps.Test selection should be based on:What is your goal: Description? Comparison? Prediction? Quantify association? Prove effectiveness? Prove causality?What kind of data have you collected? What are the levels of data (Nominal, ordinal, or continuous)? Was your sample randomly selected?Is your data normally distributed? Should you use a parametric or non-parametric test?What are the assumptions of the statistical test you would like to use? Does the data meet these assumptions?
48Inferential Statistics Inferential statistics generally require that data come from a random sample.In a random sample each person/object/item of the population has an equal chance of being chosen.Various methods of randomizationExcel
49Parametric TestsParametric tests assume that the variable in question is from a normal distribution.Non-parametric tests do not require the assumption of normality.Most non-parametric tests do not require an interval level of measurement; can be used with nominal/ordinal level data.
50Parametric vs. Non-Parametric Some Advanced Statistics...Some examples of parametric and non-parametric tests.
51Non-Parametric TestsUse when all assumptions of parametric statistics cannot be met.Can be used with data that are not normally distributed.
52Assumptions There are various assumptions for each test. Before you select a test, be sure to check the assumptions of each test.You will need to contact a consultant, or review statistical/research methods resources to find this information.Some examples of common assumptions are:The dependent variable will need to be measured on a certain level (i.e. Interval level).The independent variable(s) will need to be measured on a certain level (i.e. Ordinal level).The population is normally distributed (not skewed).If your data do not meet the assumptions for a specific test, you may be able to use a non-parametric test instead.
53Sample SizeThere are several rules of thumb for determining sample size.1) It’s a good idea to have a minimum of 30 cases (as a total group, or if comparing groups, 30 for each group).If you have less you can use a non-parametric test, but it is still better to have close to 30 cases.2) If using regression, it is best to have between cases per independent variable.3) If you are validating a survey, it is never good to have more questions than cases.4) If the total population that you are examining is less than 30. Use all of them.5) For pilot studies the recommendation is a sample size of 12 per group6) With a sample size of 400 per group, you can do just about anything.7) For surveys, a 30% response rate is the bare minimum.Note: For a precise sample size estimate you will need to conduct a power analysis.
54Statistical Decision Making Tree Type of DataGoalMeasurement Normal PopulationOrdinal, or Non-Normal PopulationBinomial -Two Possible OutcomesSurvival TimeDescribe one groupMean, SDMedian, interquartile rangeProportionKaplan Meier survival curveCompare one group to a hypothetical valueOne-sample t testWilcoxon testChi-square or Binomial test **Compare two unpaired groupsUnpaired t testMann-Whitney testFisher's test (chi-square for large samples)Log-rank test or Mantel-Haenszel*Compare two paired groupsPaired t testMcNemar's testConditional proportional hazards regression*Compare three or more unmatched groupsOne-way ANOVAKruskal-Wallis testChi-square testCox proportional hazard regression**Compare three or more matched groupsRepeated-measures ANOVAFriedman testCochrane Q**Conditional proportional hazards regression**Quantify association between two variablesPearson correlationSpearman correlationContingency coefficients**Predict value from another measured variableSimple linear regression or Nonlinear regressionNonparametric regression**Simple logistic regression*Cox proportional hazard regression*Predict value from several measured or binomial variablesMultiple linear regression* or Multiple nonlinear regression**Multiple logistic regression*Statistical Decision Making Tree
55Type of DataGoalMeasurement Normal PopulationRank, Score, or Measurement Non-Normal PopulationBinomial -Two Possible OutcomesSurvival TimeCompare three or more matched groupsRepeated-measures ANOVAFriedman testCochrane Q**Conditional proportional hazards regression**Quantify association between two variablesPearson correlationSpearman correlationContingency coefficients**Predict value from another measured variableSimple linear regression or Nonlinear regressionNonparametric regression**Simple logistic regression*Cox proportional hazard regression*Predict value from several measured or binomial variablesMultiple linear regression* or Multiple nonlinear regression**Multiple logistic regression*
57During the group exercise… Steps to choose the appropriate statistical method for the data analysis:1. Identify whether the research problem raises the question of describe, relate (association), or compare (difference).2. Identify the levels of measurement in the research question (Nominal/Categorical, Ordinal/Rank, Continuous/Evenly spaced).3. Identify the number of variables, or samples being described, related, or compared.4. Identify whether comparison samples are related (analyze same group before and after) or independent (not at all related, looking at different groups).5. Choose the appropriate statistical tool for the data and situation using the decision tree in the handout.
58WORK GROUP ASSIGNMENT Now it’s time to meet your research team! You will be assigned to groups.Get ready to meet your Co-investigators!
591. A pilot experiment designed to test the effectiveness of a new approach to electrode placement for Electro Shock Therapy (ECT) has been conducted over a one year time period in the Fraser Health Authority.Patients from two different mood disorder clinics participated in this study. Patients from Clinic X received ECT therapy according to current practice guidelines. Patients from Clinic Y received a new exploratory ECT treatment. Patients in each clinic were matched for age, gender, and type of disorder. A random sample of 30 matched pairs of patients were selected for inclusion in the study. At end of one year, patients were administered a memory test yielding a total score out of 100. Dr. Vasdil would like to know what statistical procedure needs to be selected to test for differences among groups of patients on the memory test.What is the question: CompareHow many samples: 2Related or independent: IndependentWhat is the level of measurement: ContinuousHow many dependent variables: 1Test: T-test
61BONUS: Can you really sing in statistics? Prove it! What category of statistical test could you use if you have a sample of less than 30 people?What is the recommended sample size for pilot studies?Quantitative research is deductive, qualitative research is ________.Reliability, validity, and objectivity are all important ________ considerations.
64Please see the FH Research Administration and Development research education calendar for more upcoming events.Online Workshop Evaluation Forms will be sent shortly after the workshop. Please take the time to complete this short online survey.