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Science – High School 2nd grade 1st Term

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1 Science – High School 2nd grade 1st Term
The Scientific Method Fiorella Ramirez

2 First things first… Scientific knowledge Scientific research
Is acquired through research Scientific research Follows the Scientific Method Scientific knowledge acquired through scientific research is considered truthful… … why? Do you agree?

3 First things first… The Knowledge aquiered by Scientific Research is considered truthful … …because the process that led to it`s discovery can be replicated.

4 The scientific method Testable question Writing a hypothesis
Gathering materials Writing a procedure Conducting the experiment Recording data, results Drawing conclusions Sharing results

5 The testable question The problem

6 The testable question Before you start an experiment you must have a reason to do it. You need to have a question that can be answered through an investigation It is stated as a problem.

7 Examples of testable questions
Does the amount of sunlight a plant gets affect how it grows? Which disinfectant works the best on household germs? Does caffeine affect reaction time in middle school students?

8 These are not testable questions
Does water smell good? Is the cafeteria food good? Will the school be open tomorrow? You cannot answer these questions with an experiment. Opinion questions are not testable.

9 How to write it? The hypothesis

10 Writing a Hypothesis A hypothesis is an “educated guess” about the out come of your experiment. In order to make this guess, you must rely on your background knowledge and the research which you conducted before you began planning the experiment.

11 Hypothesis and research
Why do a research before the actual experiment? Because this research will give you the information you need to make a hypothesis that is scientific and accurate.

12 A well written hypothesis
A well written hypothesis consists of an “if” statement and a “then” statement. The “if” statement contains information on what your are testing, and … …the “then” statement reflects your beliefs of the outcome of the experiment.

13 Confused?... here some example.
“If we decrease the amount of sunlight, then plant will grow slower” “If we compare the disinfectant power of Sapolio and Pinesol, then the Sapolio’s will be higher” “If caffeine is increased in a student's body, then their reaction time will be quicker”

14 Gathering materials and writing a procedure
The experiment

15 Gathering materials In order to do an experiment, you must make a list of the tools and equipment you will use. This list is written above your procedure. It allows other people to do your experiment without having to ask you what they need.

16 Writing a procedure A procedure is a list of steps that a scientist takes to complete the experiment. This is a very detailed list that is numbered in 1,2, order. It is not a paragraph! You know you have written a good procedure when someone can read it and do the experiment exactly like you did.

17 Conducting the experiment
It is now time to start testing your hypothesis! This is the step that we all want to jump right into. However, it is very important that we complete the previous steps first. Safety is always an issue here. Be sure to follow all lab safety procedures while conducting the investigation

18 The experiment Simply follow the steps in your procedure!!
If you have written a detailed procedure, your investigation should go smoothly. Simply follow the steps in your procedure!! Be sure to clean up your materials when you have finished!

19 Recording data The results

20 Recording Data All measurements in an investigation need to be recorded: Data table Chart Notebook Any instrument you use must have a title and appropriate labels. Table 1.- Hours of sunlight and plant growth in 7 days Plant Hours/day Growth (cm) 1 6 3 2 4 7 5

21 Graphing Your Data Table
A graph lets you see trends in the data and it also helps you look at the data in a way that is easy to understand. Remember your labels!!

22 …getting there! The conclusions

23 Drawing conclusions The final piece of the scientific method is drawing conclusions. In this step we analyze our data and graphs and decide if our hypothesis was correct or incorrect! We always restate our hypothesis in our conclusion. We discuss any trends we see and we attempt to explain why our hypothesis was correct or incorrect. This is always in paragraph form!

24 For example… Conclusion
In conclusion, I can say that my hypothesis (state your hypothesis) was correct. The sunlight has a direct effect on plant growth, if it is exposed to little sunlight or too much sunlight the plant will not grow. My graph shows a decrease in growth in both cases so I have proved that this is true.

25 Sharing conclusions To make our experiment complete we must share our findings with other people. This can be through discussion or a lab report printed for a magazine. Scientists love to read about other’s experiments!

26 This is it… wasn’t that hard right?

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