# The History of the Computer. An Abacus, otherwise known as a counting frame, was used in ancient times in many parts of the world. This calculating tool.

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The History of the Computer

An Abacus, otherwise known as a counting frame, was used in ancient times in many parts of the world. This calculating tool has been developed and improved in areas such as Asia and Rome. The Abacus was a useful instrument because it was an efficient way in the past for performing arithmetic processes. The most popular technique of constructing an abacus today is a bamboo frame with beads sliding on wires. This hand made calculator was in use centuries before the written modern numeral system and was adopted by merchants and traders. Anyone who uses the abacus was known as an Abacist.They slide the beads of the Abacus by hand. This primeval tool was the first step for the idea of a computer. THE ABACUS

During the 19 th century, humans computed tables of data for companies. Especially during the European Industrial Revolution, humans as the main machines for mathematical facts and equations became a popular occupation. The main industries that involved humans as “computers” were surveying, engineer, navigation, and finance. However, humans often made errors and mistakes while creating the tables. Companies needed to create an automatic machine to solve this inefficacy. Soon enough, this problem was answered by one inventive man called Charles Babbage.

CHARLESBABBAGECHARLESBABBAGE Charles Babbage, 100 years ahead of his time, was the first step towards new technology. Before his idea of a mechanical computer arrived, he was an under appreciated and misunderstood man who went to Trinity College in Cambridge, England. Charles’ innovative skills were being enhanced by the society of the Scientist Aristocrats. However, while working for, “the Royal Astro-Nautical Society”, Babbage realized mistakes were being made on the tables. He formed the idea that he could create a machine that would automatically provide more accurate tables. Unfortunately, Babbage died before completing his various projects due to an illness.

In 1822, Babbage invented the difference engine, an automatic machine that calculated numbers. However, his invention would be a costly project and he solicited to the British government in 1823. Great Britain was the first country to finance the advancement of technology of computers. Charles soon ran into many problems, such as not having the proper tools to build precise parts of the difference engine. As a result, he constructed his own advanced tools, crediting himself on having an impact on the Tool Manufacturing Industry. Unfortunately, he never finished his project due to money. In 1832, Babbage began a new engine, the Analytical engine. It was similar to a modern day computer because it included a mill, related to a modern CPU, and the store, which was the memory vault. Punch cards were the instructions that were inserted into the machine. Both engines are classified as mechanical computers because they contained metal gears and shafts. Babbage’s Machines

Ada Augusta Ada Augusta was a strong opinionated woman who publicized Charles Babbage’s analytical engine. Ada was most known as Countess of Lovelace and daughter of the wealthy Lord Bryan Rosh. Ada Augusta discovered Babbage at a public dinner party, where his engines were on display. On seeing the machine, she was fully impressed and interested. As a result, she wrote and published an article supporting the analytical engine. When Babbage died, her sketches of his machine earned her the title of the World’s first programmer.

In the late 1800’s, the U.S Census Bureau encountered a census problem. A usual census count was taken every ten years, but it changed when America was becoming the world’s greatest Industrial power. As a result, the United States population was increasing 35% each decade, which made a census count impossible for humans to manage. Seven years had passed between 1880- 1887 and the census was still incomplete, but one great man changed this difficult dilemma. Census Count 13,00017,85411,442

Herman Hollerith Herman Hollerith was the inventor of a machine that solved the census problem. When the census was still unfinished, the government had staged a contest to find a quicker, more efficient way to count the growing population. Herman Hollerith invented a incredible machine that recorded the population through efficient punch cards. He named it, “The Hollerith” and it was 10 times faster than the other 2 competing systems. The device even finished counting the census within 6 weeks. The Bureau leased 56 of his machines at \$1000 each. Herman Hollerith was not only a good business man, but an important step to computers.

WORLD WAR II World War II spurred the development of the true electronic computer. The German encrypting machine, called the Enigma, began the computer revolution. The Enigma’s job was to give secret messages to allies using codes that were considered unbreakable. Unfortunately, a Polish engineer sold the Enigma to the British and he was then smuggled into Paris, France by the British Embassy. With the Enigma‘s secrets uncovered, the British birthed the Colossus in response in order to read encrypted German messages. Although this fast- paced, code breaking computer was never used in World War II, it proved that electronic, programmable computers can be built.

The ENIAC was considered to be the first machine similar to modern day computers. The specific meaning of ENIAC is the "Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer.” The ENIAC was originally developed by John Mauchly, a physicist, and later completed by Prespert Eckert. Their construction on the ENIAC began in secret at the University of Pennsylvania’s Moore School of Electrical Engineering and was supported in funds by the United States Army during World War II. The machine was built because there was a shortage of firing tables, which were not being produced fast enough by "human” computers. This great computer is 100 feet long, weighs 30 tons, has 18,000 vacuum tubes and 70,000 resistors. THE ENIAC

Although the ENIAC was considered to be an amazing piece of machinery, the computer still had its problems. The many vacuum tubes on the ENIAC constantly burnt out, similar to a light bulb burning out, which damaged its reliability. Even though this set back was minor, it crippled the ENIAC because it contained a fair amount of vacuum tubes. However, Eckert solved this problem by producing vacuum tubes that were built to higher tolerance and could run under lower power. The ENIAC was finally completed after World War II, but was never used for practical reasons because its memory was somewhat primitive. But even with all of these difficulties, the ENIAC proved computers could be built. Problems with the ENIAC

John Van Neumann was a Manhattan Project Scientist and was widely regarded as one of the best Mathematicians. Originally, Neumann wrote a paper on a computer’s Internal Memory. His paper became well-known and therefore he was credited for developing this specific part. However, two new people have entered the picture. These past inventers, Mockely and Eckhert, argued that they were the first people to discover Internal Memory. Unfortunately, the public ignored them and Neumann officially became the founder. Now! John Von Neumann discovered a new secret! He invented the computer’s internal memory! But fame does not last. Two new people have entered the picture. Mockley and Eckert are arguing that they discovered this technology.

The United States presidential election of 1952 took place during the Cold War era. The two candidates were the headstrong Dwight Eisenhower and Adlav Stevenson. This particular election was a big part of the Univac’s popularity. It was the first time that an election’s results were being predicted by a computer. In the end, the Univac correctly calculated the votes, which made this election the cause of a computer-using revelation. The 1952 election was won by noble Dwight Eisenhower, who was President from 1953-1961. Presidential Elections of 1952

This incredible machine was used to predict the 1952 presidential elections. Originally, Univac predicted that Eisenhower, one of the people elected, would win by a landslide. But since the polls said otherwise, the Univac was reprogrammed. As it turned out, the computer was correct and CBS admitted that they were wrong about the computer. The Univac’s power proved useful and the business machine manufactures finally jumped on the “computer” wagon. The Univac was a universal business computer invented by Mauchly and Eckert. The computer was built for the US census bureau, but since the project was very costly, it had to be bailed out financially. As a solution, Eckert and Mauchly joined with Remington Rand, which was a typewriter manufacture, and the Univac was soon delivered to the census bureau. THEUNIVACTHEUNIVAC

Thomas Watson Sr. transformed the “Tabulation Machine Company” into his own corporation called IBM, which was the largest manufacturer of electronic typewriters and data-processing equipment, But even though he was successful, T. Watson Sr. was not eager to jump into the computer manufacturing because it was too costly. Thomas Watson Jr., however, led IBM(International Business Machines) into the “computer age”. He ordered the development of a computer in 1953 called, “The 701”. It was IBM’s first fully electronic computer, but it still relied on punch cards. Although business were fed up with the bulky punch cards, it was still considered a high technology computer.

The Space Race was a competition of space exploration between the countries of Russia and the United States. The fight for space was from 1957 to 1975. But in 1961, Russia was winning by sending the 1 st man into outer space. America needed to beat the goal that the Soviet Union established. As a result, the U.S installed an advanced computer into a space ship. This allowed America to send the 1 st man on the moon and to win the space race. This great man was William Armstrong.

Although transistors were a tiny part of a computer’s system, they played a huge part to a computer’s function. In 1947, three men, William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, were an important part in the history of transistors. They became a part of BELL LABS, which was a company that produced transistors that could replaced vacuum tubes. Transistors had at least three terminals for a connection to an external circuit, which led to the miniaturization of computers. Their discovery eventually won the Nobel Prize. TRANSISTORS

The production of Integrated circuits were discovered in 1959. They were indepedently created by Robert Novce and Jack Kilby. Although I.C’s were useful, they were very expensive to produce and make. The nickname for Integrated circuits were I.C’s. I.C’s made computers much lighter in weight, making it covenant for the computer business. Integrated Circuits

The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970’s. A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit, also known as a CPU, on a single IC. Ted Hoff was an Intel Engineer who developed the first Microprocessor. Later on, these devices were changed into more affordable parts, such as 8-bit and 16-bit microprocessors. This led to the first general purpose of microcomputers in the mid 1970’s. Most importantly, microprocessors makes today PC possible.

However, Xerox Parc, a company who developed many elements of modern computing was interested in these new functions. A man named Robert Taylor wanted to use a P.C that had the same components that Englebart invented. In 1968, Doug Englebart was credited for adding popular parts that are on our computers today. He created the very 1 st computer that involved a mouse and a graphic interface, which featured windows and icons. He eventually made a P.C called the ALTO, which was a commercial model and star. Most importantly, it introduced and unified most aspects of personal computer usage, such as the mouse and a graphic user interface.

Inc.History of

The Computers of Apple APPLE Computer Later on, Mike Markola saw the Apple II prototype, which went on display on August 16, 1977 at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differed from its competing brands, such as the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because it contained color graphics and open architecture. Apple II was eventually succeeded by Apple III in May 1980 as the company competed with IBM and Microsoft Throughout the history of Apple Inc., various of famous and modern computers were invented and sold. Steve Wozniak was the brains and engineering side of the business and he created Apple’s very first computer, the Apple I. This early version of a personal computer was sold as a motherboard, complete with a CPU and RAM. It went on sale in July 1976 for \$666.66.

Lisa won the race in 1983 as the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI. Unfortunately, Mac moved on and became powerful due to its advance graphic capabilities. With the sales from Apple II and the introduction of the Macintosh, Apple reached new goals and high sales. Soon after Apple II, Steve Jobs began working on Apple Lisa in 1978 but was pushed from the project in 1982 due to infighting. Jobs took over Jef Raskin’s low-cost computer project called the Macintosh. A war soon broke out between the two competing teams on which computer would ship first and save the company. The LisaThe MacintoshVS.

Microsoft has grown into a multinational computer technology corporation that develops and manufactures software products for computers. Originally, the company began in 1972, when Bill Gates arranged a deal for MITS to develop and sell his BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800. Microsoft was founded in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and its first international office was established in Japan. Later in January 1, 1979, the company moved to Bellevue, Washington, where Steve Ballmer joined Microsoft. In August 1985, IBM and Microsoft partnered together to create a different operating system called, OS/2. That same year, Microsoft launched its first retail version of Microsoft Windows, which played a big part of the company’s ongoing success. History of Windows

Soon after this agreement, Gates left Harvard University, moved to New Mexico where MITS was located, and founded Microsoft there. Gates later became CEO when Steve Ballmer joined. A year after Microsoft created Microsoft Windows, the company had an Initial Public Offering in 1986. The stock closed at \$27.75 per share, making Microsoft’s two founders, Gates with 45% of the company and Allen with 25%, instant millionaires Bill Gates was born on October 28, 1955 and is currently the chairman of Microsoft. He is most known as the richest man in the world, but how did he gain is wealth in the first place? It began after the launch of the Altair 8800, when he arranged a meeting with the creators of the new microcomputer, the MITS. Gates wanted to demonstrate the BASIC programming language for the system and MITS agreed to distribute the Altair BASIC.

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