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T e a c h e r s D i s c o v e r i n g C o m p u t e r s Integrating Technology in the Classroom 3 rd Edition Chapter 4 Hardware for Educators.

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Presentation on theme: "T e a c h e r s D i s c o v e r i n g C o m p u t e r s Integrating Technology in the Classroom 3 rd Edition Chapter 4 Hardware for Educators."— Presentation transcript:

1 T e a c h e r s D i s c o v e r i n g C o m p u t e r s Integrating Technology in the Classroom 3 rd Edition Chapter 4 Hardware for Educators

2 2 CHAPTER 4 OBJECTIVES bDescribe the system unit bDefine the term bit, and describe how a series of bits are used to represent data bIdentify the major components of the system unit and explain their functions bExplain how the CPU uses the four steps of a machine cycle to process data bList the characteristics of a keyboard and identify various types of keyboards

3 3 CHAPTER 4 OBJECTIVES bIdentify various types of pointing devices bDifferentiate among the four types of output bIdentify the different types of output devices bExplain the differences among various types of printers

4 4 CHAPTER 4 OBJECTIVES bDifferentiate between storage and memory bIdentify types of storage media and devices bExplain how data is stored on floppy disks, hard disks, and CD-ROMs bDifferentiate between CD-ROMs and DVD-ROMs

5 5 THE SYSTEM UNIT bSystem unit Box-like case that houses the electronic components of the computer that are used to process data

6 6 DATA REPRESENTATION bAnalog vs. Digital bDigital Two states –(1) on –(0) off

7 7 DATA REPRESENTATION bBinary number system bCombination of ones and zeroes represent characters

8 8 DATA REPRESENTATION bASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange Converting a keyboard stroke into a byte

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10 10 THE COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM UNIT bThe Motherboard Contains many of the electronic components Chip –A small piece of semiconducting material on which one or more integrated circuits are etched

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12 12 THE COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM UNIT bCPU and Microprocessor Interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer Microprocessor contains the CPU in a PC

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15 15 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR bThe Control Unit A component of the CPU that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer –Fetch – get the next instruction from memory –Decode – translate the instruction –Execute – carry out the command –Store the result – write the result to memory –Machine cycle

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17 17 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR bThe Arithmetic/Logic Unit Performs the execution part of the machine cycle Arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) Comparison (greater than, equal to, less than) Logical (AND, OR, NOT)

18 18 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR bThe System Clock Synchronizes all computer operations Each tick is called a clock cycle Faster clock means more instructions the CPU can execute each second Speed measured in megahertz (MHz) –One million ticks of the system clock

19 19 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR bMemory Used to store data, instructions, and information –The operating system and other system software –Application programs –Data being processed by application programs Bytes are stored at specific locations or addresses

20 20 Seats in a stadium are similar to addresses in memory: (1)A seat in memory holds one person at a time, and an address in memory holds a single byte (2)Both a seat and an address can be empty (3)A seat has a unique identifying number and so does an address

21 21 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR bMemory Size of memory is measured by the number of bytes available

22 22 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR bMemory Volatile memory – contents are lost when the computer is powered down Nonvolatile memory – contents are not lost when the computer is powered down

23 23 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR bRandom Access Memory (RAM) The memory chips in the system unit When the computer starts, operating system files are loaded from a hard disk into RAM Synchronous Dynamic RAM (SDRAM) Dual Inline Memory Module (DIMM)

24 24 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR bRandom Access Memory (RAM) RAM Chips –Smaller in size than processor chips –Packaged on circuit boards called single inline memory modules (SIMMs) or dual inline memory modules (DIMMs)

25 25 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR bRandom Access Memory (RAM) Configuring RAM –The more RAM, the more programs and files a computer can work on at once –Software usually tells you how much RAM is required –Necessary RAM depends on what type of work the computer is used for

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27 27 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR Read-Only Memory (ROM) Cannot be modified Contents not lost when the computer is turned off

28 28 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR bExpansion Slots and Expansion Cards Expansion slot –An opening, or socket, where a circuit board can be inserted into the motherboard –Add new devices or capabilities to the computer Expansion card –Circuit boards, such as a modem or graphics card, that add new capabilities to the computer

29 29 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR bExpansion Slots and Expansion Cards Three common types –Video card –Sound card –Internal modem PC Cards Plug and Play

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31 31 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR bPorts and Connectors Port –Point of attachment to the system unit –Usually on the back of the computer Connectors –Used to plug into ports –Male connectors –Female connectors

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33 33 CPU AND MICROPROCESSOR bPorts and Connectors New ports –USB –USB 2.0 –1394 (FireWire)

34 34 WHAT IS INPUT? bAny data or instructions you enter into the memory of a computer Data – unorganized facts Program – series of instructions that tells the computer how to perform a task Command – an instruction given to a computer program User response – responses to questions or messages from the software

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36 36 WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES? bAny hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer

37 37 WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES? bThe Keyboard Primary input device Typing area Numeric keypad Toggle keys Status lights Arrow keys – arrow control keys Function keys Specialized buttons Wireless keyboards

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39 39 WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES? bPointing Devices An input device that allows you to control a pointer on the screen –Block arrow –I-beam –Pointing hand

40 40 WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES? bPointing Devices Mouse –One or two button mouse –Moving the mouse pointer –Clicking –Dragging –Double-clicking –Optical mouse –Cordless mouse

41 41 WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES? bTouchpad and Pointing Stick Touchpad – small, flat, rectangular pointing device that is sensitive to pressure and motion Pointing Stick – pressure-sensitive pointing device shaped like a pencil eraser

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43 43 WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES? bPointing Devices Trackball –Like a mouse, but the ball is on top –Often used on portable computers

44 44 WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES? bPointing Devices Joystick –Uses the movement of a vertical lever –Often used with games Wheel –Steering-wheel type input device –Used to simulate driving a car

45 45 WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES? bPointing Devices Touch screen –Monitor has a touch sensitive panel –Used to issue simple commands or choose from a list of options –Kiosks

46 46 bOptical Readers Uses light to read characters, marks, and codes and then converts them into digital data that can be processed by a computer Optical character recognition (OCR) –Reads character printed in OCR font Optical mark recognition (OMR) Bar code WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES?

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48 48 WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES? bOptical Scanner Electronically captures an entire page of text or images Converts text or image into digital data than can be stored and used

49 49 WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES? bDigital Cameras Allows you to take pictures and store the photographed images digitally Download, or transfer, pictures to your computer

50 50 WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES? bAudio and Video Input Audio input –Entering music, speech, or sound effects –Sound card –Speech Recognition –Computer’s capability of distinguishing spoken words

51 51 bAudio and Video Input Video input –Entering a full-motion recording into a computer and storing the video on a hard disk or some other medium –Video capture card WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES?

52 52 WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES? bInput Devices for Handheld Computers Stylus Voice Input Portable keyboard On screen keyboard

53 53 bInput Devices for Students with Special Needs Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Keyguard Touch window Pointing devices WHAT ARE INPUT DEVICES?

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55 55 WHAT IS OUTPUT? bData that has been processed into information bText bGraphics bAudio bVideo

56 56 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bAny computer component capable of conveying information to the user

57 57 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bMonitors and Display Devices Screen housed in a plastic or metal case Variety of sizes Cathode ray tube (CRT) Pixels LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors

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59 59 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bLarge Display Monitors Allow an audience or a group of students in a classroom to easily view images and multimedia displayed on a computer Available from 27 to 36 inches

60 60 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bLarge Display Monitors High-definition television (HDTV) Gas plasma monitor

61 61 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bFlat Panel Monitors and Displays Uses liquid crystal instead of a CRT Consume less than 1/3 the power of a CRT Thinner and lighter than a CRT E-books

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63 63 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bMonitor Quality Resolution (sharpness and clarity) –Expressed as number of columns and rows –640 x 480 –800 x 600 –1024 x 768 Dot pitch Refresh rate ENERGY STAR

64 64 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bPrinters An output device that produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper or transparency film Hard copy (printout) Portrait vs. landscape Printing requirements vary

65 65 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bImpact Printers Printing mechanism strikes ink ribbon forming character on paper Not usually high quality Dot-matrix printers Continuous-form paper

66 66 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bNonimpact Printers Do not strike paper Much quieter Ink-jet printers –Spray tiny drops of ink onto the paper –Both black-and-white and color

67 67 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bNonimpact Printers Laser printers –High-speed, high- quality nonimpact printer –Very high quality resolution – 300dpi to 1,200 dpi

68 68 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bData Projectors Allows an audience to view output LCD projectors Digital light processing (DLP) projector

69 69 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bFacsimile (Fax) Machine Used to transmit and receive an image of a document over a phone line Stand-alone Fax modem

70 70 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bMultifunction Devices Can print, scan, copy and fax Less space Lower cost than separate units

71 71 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bAudio Output Produce music, speech, or other sounds Speakers Headsets

72 72 WHAT ARE OUTPUT DEVICES? bOutput Devices for Students with Special Needs Display instead of sound for hearing impaired Change color and magnification on screen Braille printer

73 73 WHAT IS STORAGE? bThe media on which data, instructions, and information are kept bThe devices that record and retrieve data, instructions, and information bLike a filing cabinet

74 74 WHAT IS STORAGE? bStorage Media and Devices Storage medium –Also called secondary storage –Physical material Storage device –Mechanism used to record and retrieve –Capacity measured in megabytes or gigabytes

75 75 WHAT IS STORAGE? bFloppy Disks Portable, inexpensive storage medium consisting of a thin, circular, flexible film enclosed in a square- shaped plastic shell Several sizes –8-inch –5.25-inch –3.5-inch

76 76 WHAT IS STORAGE? bCharacteristics of a Floppy Disk Uses magnetic patterns to store data Formatting –Track –Sector Write-protection Guidelines for floppy disk care Floppy disk drive

77 77 WHAT IS STORAGE? bHigh-Capacity Removable Disks Capacities greater than 100 MB Many uses –Graphics, audio, or video –Transporting files –Backups Zip drive

78 78 WHAT IS STORAGE? bHard Disks Provide large storage capacity and high speed data access Sizes range from 30 GB to 100 GB Consists of several inflexible, circular disks, called platters Magnetic storage device Formatting

79 79 WHAT IS STORAGE bExternal and Removable Hard Disks External Hard Disk – Separate hard disk that connects to a USB or FireWire port by cable –USB Drives

80 80 WHAT IS STORAGE? bCDs and DVDs Optical storage media Used to distribute software Laser reads pits on the surface Used on multimedia computers Several types –CD-ROM –DVD-ROM

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82 82 WHAT IS STORAGE? bCare of CDs and DVDs Can last from 5 to 100 years if properly cared for Never bend a disc Avoid extreme temperatures and humidity Keep away from contaminants Do not stack or touch discs Use a protective case

83 83 WHAT IS STORAGE? bCD-ROM Compact disc read- only memory Can contain text, graphics, video, as well as sound Can hold 650 MB of data Used for today’s complex software

84 84 WHAT IS STORAGE? bCD-R and CD-RW Compact disc-recordable –Can write on each part of the disc only one time –Cannot be erased Compact disc-rewriteable –Can write on multiple times –Erasable disc

85 85 WHAT IS STORAGE? bDVD-ROM and DVD+RW Digital video disc read-only memory (DVD- ROM) –Can store from 4.7 GB to 17 GB –High quality –DVD-ROM drives –May replace CDs, VCRs, and VHS tapes Digital video disc+rewritable (DVD+RW) –Can write on multiple times –Erasable disc

86 86 WHAT IS STORAGE? bMiniature Mobile Storage Media

87 87 CHAPTER SUMMARY bDescribe the system unit bDefine the term bit, and describe how a series of bits are used to represent data bIdentify the major components of the system unit and explain their functions bExplain how the CPU uses the four steps of a machine cycle to process data

88 88 CHAPTER SUMMARY bDescribe the four types of input and input devices bList the characteristics of a keyboard and identify various types of keyboards bIdentify various types of pointing devices bDifferentiate among the four types of output bIdentify the different types of output devices

89 89 CHAPTER SUMMARY bExplain the differences among various types of printers bDifferentiate between storage and memory bIdentify types of storage media and devices bExplain how data is stored on floppy disks, hard disks, and CD-ROMs bDifferentiate between CD-ROMs and DVD- ROMs

90 T e a c h e r s D i s c o v e r i n g C o m p u t e r s Integrating Technology in the Classroom 3 rd Edition Chapter 4 Complete

91 91 Buyer’s Guide 2004 HOW TO PURCHASE, INSTALL, AND MAINTAIN A PERSONAL COMPUTER

92 92 HOW TO PURCHASE A PERSONAL COMPUTER bDo you want a desktop or mobile computer? bFor what purposes will you use this computer? bShould the computer be compatible with the computers at school or work? bShould the computer be a Mac or PC?

93 93 HOW TO PURCHASE A DESKTOP COMPUTER bDetermine the specific software you want to use on your computer bLook for bundled software bAvoid buying the least powerful computer available bConsider upgrades to the mouse, keyboard, monitor, printer, microphone, and speakers bDetermine whether you want to use telephone lines or broadband (cable or DSL) to access the Internet

94 94 HOW TO PURCHASE A DESKTOP COMPUTER bIf you are using a dial-up or wireless connection to connect to the Internet, then select an ISP or OSP bUse a worksheet to compare computers, services, and other considerations bIf you are buying a new computer, you have several purchasing options: buying from your school bookstore, a local computer dealer, a local large retail store, or ordering by mail via telephone or the Web bIf you are buying a used computer, stay with name brands such as Dell, Gateway, Hewlett-Packard, and Apple bIf you have a computer and are upgrading to a new one, then consider selling or trading in the old one

95 95 HOW TO PURCHASE A DESKTOP COMPUTER bBe aware of hidden costs bConsider more than just price bAvoid restocking fees bConsider purchasing an extended warranty or service plan bUse a credit card to purchase your new computer

96 96 HOW TO PURCHASE A NOTEBOOK COMPUTER bPurchase a notebook computer with a sufficiently large active-matrix screen bExperiment with different keyboards and pointing devices bMake sure the notebook computer you purchase has a CD and/or DVD drive bIf necessary, upgrade the processor, memory, and disk storage at the time of purchase bThe availability of built-in ports on a notebook computer is important

97 97 HOW TO PURCHASE A NOTEBOOK COMPUTER bIf you plan to use your notebook computer for note-taking at school or in meetings, consider a notebook computer that converts to a Tablet PC bConsider purchasing a notebook computer with a built-in wireless card to connect to your home network bIf you are going to use your notebook computer for long periods without access to an electrical outlet, purchase a second battery bPurchase a well-padded and well-designed carrying case

98 98 HOW TO PURCHASE A NOTEBOOK COMPUTER bIf you travel overseas, obtain a set of electrical and telephone adapters bIf you plan to connect your notebook computer to a video projector, make sure the notebook computer is compatible with the video projector bFor improved security, consider a fingerprint scanner

99 99 HOW TO PURCHASE A TABLET PC bMake sure the Tablet PC fits your mobile computing needs bDecide whether you want a convertible or pure Tablet PC bBe sure the weight and dimensions are conducive to portability bPort availability, battery life, and durability are even more important with a Tablet PC than they are with a notebook computer

100 100 HOW TO PURCHASE A TABLET PC bExperiment with different models of the Tablet PC to find the digital pen that works best for you bCheck out the comfort level of handwriting in different positions bMake sure the LCD display device has a resolution high enough to take advantage of Microsoft’s ClearType technology bTest the built-in Tablet PC microphone and speakers

101 101 HOW TO PURCHASE A TABLET PC bConsider a Tablet PC with a built-in PC video camera bReview the docking capabilities of the Tablet PC bWireless access to the Internet and your is essential with a Tablet PC bReview available accessories to purchase with your Tablet PC

102 102 HOW TO PURCHASE A PDA bDetermine the programs you plan to run on your PDA bConsider how much you want to pay bDetermine whether you need wireless access to the Internet and or mobile telephone capabilities with your PDA bMake sure your PDA has enough memory

103 103 HOW TO PURCHASE A PDA bPractice with the touch screen, handwriting recognition, and built-in keyboard before deciding on a model bDecide whether you want a color display bCompare battery life bEven with PDAs, seriously consider the importance of ergonomics

104 104 HOW TO PURCHASE A PDA bCheck out the accessories bDecide whether you want additional functionality bDetermine whether synchronization of data with other PDAs or personal computers is important

105 105 HOW TO INSTALL A COMPUTER bRead the installation manuals before you start to install your equipment bDo some additional research bSet up your computer in a well-designed work area and remain aware of health issues as you work bInstall your computer in a work space where you can control the temperature and humidity

106 106 HOW TO INSTALL A COMPUTER bSet up your work space near an available electrical outlet and set aside a proper location for the electrical wires bHave a telephone outlet and telephone or cable connection near your work space so you can connect your modem and/or place calls while using your computer bIf you plan to set up a wireless network, choose an area that is free from potential signal interference bInstall bookshelves

107 107 HOW TO INSTALL A COMPUTER bObtain a computer tool set bSave all the paperwork that comes with your computer bRecord the serial numbers of all your equipment and software bComplete and mail your equipment and software registration cards or register online

108 108 HOW TO INSTALL A COMPUTER bKeep the shipping containers and packing materials for all your equipment bIdentify device connectors bKeep your computer area clean bCheck your home or renter’s insurance policy

109 109 HOW TO MAINTAIN YOUR COMPUTER bStart a notebook or file using a simple outline that includes information about your computer bBefore you work inside your computer, turn off the power and disconnect the equipment from the power source bKeep the area surrounding your computer dirt and dust free bBack up important files and data

110 110 HOW TO MAINTAIN YOUR COMPUTER bProtect your computer from viruses bKeep your computer tuned bLearn to use diagnostic tools bConserve energy wherever possible


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