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1 Welcome to our Presentation
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Presented by: Rashmita Tripathy Kristen Hammel

2 CONTENTS OF TPM Introduction Why TPM? History of TPM
Similarities and differences between TQM and TPM Types of maintenance Steps in introduction of TPM in an organization Pillars of TPM Goals of TPM TPM targets Example of OEE Calculation Benefits of implementing a TPM system Difficulties faced in TPM implementation Conclusion Reference list

3 INTRODUCTION TO TPM TPM is keeping the plant and equipment at its highest level through cooperation of all areas of the organization. The first part of TPM involves breaking down the barriers between maintenance and production personnel so they are working together. A common objective of TPM is peak performance or total productivity.

4 TPM ? Total Productive Maintenance can be considered the medical science of machines The idea behind TPM is to markedly increase production while at the same time increasing employee morale and job satisfaction. TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business. Down time for maintenance is scheduled as a part of the manufacturing day and, in some cases, as integral part of the manufacturing process. The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum.

5 Why TPM ? Avoid wastage in a quickly changing economic environment.
Producing goods without reducing product quality. Reduce cost. Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time. Goods sent to the customers must be non-defective.

6 History of TPM TPM is a innovative Japanese concept, and the origin of TPM can be traced back to 1951, when preventive maintenance was introduced in Japan. However the concept of preventive maintenance was taken from the United States. Nippondenso was the 1st company to introduce plant wide preventive maintenance in 1960.

7 History of TPM Preventive maintenance is the concept wherein operators produced goods using machines and the main group was dedicated with work of maintaining those machines. However maintenance became a problem as more personnel were required, so management decided that the routine maintenance of equipment would be carried out by the operators (this is autonomous maintenance, which is one of the features of TPM). Nippondenso which already followed preventive maintenance also added Autonomous maintenance done by production operators. This lead to maintenance prevention, thus preventive maintenance along with maintenance prevention and maintainability improvement gave birth to Productive Maintenance.

8 Similarities & Differences between TQM & TPM
The TPM program closely resembles the popular TQM program. Many of the tools such as employee empowerment, benchmarking, documentation, etc. used in TQM are used to implement and optimize TPM.

9 Similarities Total commitment to the program by upper level management is required in both programs. Employees must be empowered to initiate corrective action. A long range outlook must be accepted as TPM may take a year or more to implement and is an on-going process. Changes in employee mind-set toward their job responsibilities must take place as well.

10 Differences TQM’s objective is Quality (Output and effects) and TPM’s objective is Equipment (Input and cause). TQM obtains goals by systematizing the management and it is software oriented and TPM obtains goals by employee participation and it is hardware oriented. TQM’s target is quality for PPM and TPM’s target is elimination of losses and wastes.

11 Types of Maintenance Breakdown maintenance: it means that people wait until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost. Preventive maintenance: It is a daily maintenance ( cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening ), design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure deterioration. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine, the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance.

12 Types of Maintenance Periodic maintenance: Time based maintenance consists of periodically inspecting, servicing and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process problems. Predictive maintenance: This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. Compared to periodic maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance. It manages trend values, by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance system, designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system.

13 Types of Maintenance Corrective maintenance: It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried out reliably. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability. Maintenance prevention: It indicates the design of a new equipment. Weakness of current machines are sufficiently studied ( on site information leading to failure prevention, easier maintenance and prevents of defects, safety and ease of manufacturing ) and are incorporated before commissioning a new equipment.

14 Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization – Preparatory Stage (Step A)
Step 1: Announcement by Management to all about TPM introduction in the organization. Proper understanding, commitment and active involvement of the top management in needed for this step. Senior management should have awareness programs, after which announcement is made to all. Publish it in the house magazine and put it in the notice board. Send a letter to all concerned individuals if required. Step 2: Initial education and propaganda for TPM. Training is to be done based on the need. Some need intensive training and some just an awareness. Take people who matters to places where TPM already successfully implemented.

15 Step A - Preparatory Stage
Step 3: Setting up TPM and departmental committees. TPM includes improvement, autonomous maintenance, quality maintenance etc., as part of it. When committees are set up it should take care of all those needs. Step 4: Establishing the TPM working system and target. Now each area is benchmarked and fix up a target for achievement. Step 5: A master plan for institutionalizing. Next step is implementation leading to institutionalizing wherein TPM becomes an organizational culture. Achieving PM award is the proof of reaching a satisfactory level.

16 Step B – Introduction Stage
This is a ceremony and we should invite all. Suppliers as they should know that we want quality supply from them. Related companies and affiliated companies who can be our customers, sisters concerns etc. Some may learn from us and some can help us and customers will get the communication from us that we care for quality output.

17 BREAK!!!!!

In this stage – 8 pillars of TPM activity are carried out. Establish the system for production efficiency. Improve administrative efficiency. Control safety, sanitation in working environment.


20 PILLAR 1 – 5S TPM starts with 5S.
Sorting, Systematize, Shining, Standardize, Self - Discipline. Problems cannot be seen when workplace is unorganized. Cleans and organizes the workplace. Makes problems visible.


Geared towards developing operators for small maintenance tasks. Frees up more skilled workers to focus on more valuable activity and technical repairs. Maintenance of equipment by operators to prevent deterioration.

23 PILLAR 3: Kaizen (Kai=change Zen=good)
Principle: very large number of small improvements are more effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value. Systematically reduces losses and inefficiencies in the workplace. Can also be applied in production and administrative areas. Requires no or little investment.

Aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments. Produces defect free products for total customer satisfaction. Achieves and maintains availability and reliability of machines. Reduces inventory.

Highest quality through defect-free manufacturing. Focus is on quality control – eliminate current quality concerns, then move to potential quality concerns. Maintains perfect equipment to have perfect quality of products.

26 PILLAR 6: TRAINING Aimed to have multi-skilled employees who perform all functions effectively and independently. Know-How: can be learned through experience and how to overcome a problem. For Know-Why: education given to operators to know the root cause of the problem. Increases productivity.

27 PILLAR 7: OFFICE TPM Includes analyzing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. Must be followed to improve productivity and efficiency in the administrative functions. Identifies and eliminates losses. Involves all parties towards TPM which improves processes.

Target – zero accident, zero health damage, zero fires. Focus is to create a safe workplace and protect the environment Usually a committee is created for this which includes officers as well as workers.

29 GOALS OF TPM Zero breakdowns, zero accidents, and zero defects – performance, safety, and quality. Promote TPM through motivational management. Maintains and improves equipment capacity. Maintains equipment for life. Uses support from all areas of the operation. Encourages input from all employees. Uses teams for continuous improvement. Increases employee morale and job satisfaction. Holds emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum.

30 TPM TARGETS P Obtain Minimum 80% OPE. Obtain Minimum 90% OEE.
Run the machines even during launch. Q Operate in a manner, so that there are no customer complaints. C Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%. D Achieve 100% success in delivering the goods as required by the customer. S Maintain an accident free environment. M Increase the suggestions by 3 times. Develop multi-skilled and flexible workers.

31 Overall Plant Efficiency (OPE)
Function of 3 factors: - Management losses (losses due to want of tools, raw materials, men etc) - Scheduled downtime (preventive maintenance activity, meetings etc) - Overall Equipment Efficiency (measures both effectiveness and efficiency of the equipment).

32 Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE)
Incorporates 3 basic indicators of equipment performance and reliability. Availability (tool change, tool service) (A) Performance efficiency (in terms of capacity) (E) Rate of quality output (Q). Thus, OEE is measured as the product of the decimal equivalent of the three previous metrics using the equation OEE= A X E X Q

33 6 major losses measured by TPM
Downtime Losses 1. Planned a. Start-ups b. Shift changes c. Coffee and launch breaks d. Planned maintenance shutdowns 2. Un planned Downtime a. Equipment breakdown b. Changeovers c. Lack of material Reduced Speed Losses 3. Idling and minor stoppages 4. Slow-downs Poor Quality Losses 5. Process nonconformities 6. Scrap

34 OEE Model

35 Availability Availability is proportion of time machine which is actually available out of time it should be available. Downtime losses are measured by equipment availability using the equation A = (T/P) X 100 Where A = availability T = operating time (P-D) P = planned operating time D = downtime

36 Performance Efficiency
The second category of OEE is performance. Reduced speed losses are measured by tracking performance efficiency using the equation E = ((C X N) / T) X 100 Where E = performance efficiency C = theoretical cycle time N = processed amount (quantity)

37 Rate of Quality Product
It is third category of OEE. It is percentage of good parts out of total produced. Poor quality losses are measured by tracking the rate of quality products produced using the equation R = ((N - Q) / N) X 100 Where R = rate of quality products N = processed amount (quantity) Q = nonconformities

38 Example of OEE Calculation
Last week’s production numbers on machining center JL58 were as follows: Scheduled operation = 10 hours/day; 5 days/week Manufacturing downtime due to meetings, material outages, training, breaks, and so forth = 410 minutes/week Maintenance downtime scheduled and equipment breakdown = 227 minutes/week Theoretical (standard) cycle time = 0.5 minutes/unit Production for the week = 4450 units Defective parts made = 15 units

39 OEE Calculation – Contd.
P = 10 hours/day X 5 days/week X 60 minutes/hour = 3000 minutes/week D = 410 minutes/week minutes/week = 637 minutes/week T = (P-D) = 3000 – 637 = 2363 minutes A = (T / P) X 100 = (2363 / 3000) X 100 = 78.8% E = ((C X N) / T) X 100 = ((0.5 X 4450) / 2363) X 100 = 94.2% R = ((N - Q) / N) X 100 = (( ) / 4450) X 100 = 99.7% EE = A X E X R = X X = or 74.0%

40 DIRECT BENEFITS OF TPM Increases productivity and OPE (Overall Plant Efficiency) by 1.5 or 2 times. Rectifies customer complaints. Reduces the manufacturing cost by 30%. Satisfies the customer needs by 100% (Delivering the right quantity at the right time, in the required quality). Reduces accidents. Follows pollution control measures.

Higher confidence level among the employees. Keeps the work place clean, neat, and attractive. Favorable change in the attitude of the operators. Achieves goals by working as team. Shares knowledge and experience. The workers get a feeling of owning the machine.

Typically people show strong resistance to change. Many people treat it just another “Program of the month” without paying any focus and also doubt about the effectiveness. Not sufficient resources ( people, money, time, etc.) and assistance provided. Insufficient understanding of the methodology and philosophy by middle management. TPM is not a “quick fix” approach, it involves cultural change to the ways we do things. Departmental barrier existing within Business Unit. Many people considered TPM activities as additional work/threat.

43 CONCLUSION TPM may be the only thing that stands between success and total failure for some companies. It has been proven to be a program that works. It can be adopted to work not only in industrial plants, but in construction, building maintenance, transportation, and in a variety of other situations. TPM is not merely a concept but a practical and down-to-earth technique for achieving significant savings and increase in profits.

44 Reference List

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