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Principles of Information Systems Eighth Edition Hardware: Input, Processing, and Output Devices.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Information Systems Eighth Edition Hardware: Input, Processing, and Output Devices."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Information Systems Eighth Edition Hardware: Input, Processing, and Output Devices

2 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition2 Learning Objectives 1.Describe how to select and organize computer hardware components to support information system (IS) objectives and business needs 2.Describe the power, speed, and capacity of central processing and memory devices 3.Describe the access methods, capacity, and portability of secondary storage devices 4.Discuss the speed, functionality, and importance of input and output devices 5.Identify popular classes of computer systems and discuss the role of each

3 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition3 Why Learn About Hardware? Can improve productivity, increase revenue, reduce costs, and provide better service Managers are expected to know about hardware –To help define business needs –To ask questions and evaluate options when buying equipment

4 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition4 Introduction Hardware: any machinery (most of which use digital circuits) that assists in the input, processing, storage, and output activities of an information system When making hardware decisions, businesses must consider how the hardware can support: –Objectives of the information system –Goals of the organization

5 Hardware Devices Analogy: A Paper-Based Office Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition5 Secondary Storage Register Storage Output Primary Storage Input

6 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition 6 Hardware Components Figure 3.1: Hardware Components

7 Hardware Components in Action Execution of machine-level instruction Phase 1 : Instruction Phase – Fetch and Decode Phase 2 : Execution Phase – Execute and Store I-time: the time taken to perform phase 1 E-time: the time taken to perform phase 2 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition7

8 8 Hardware Components in Action Figure 3.2: Execution of an Instruction

9 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition9 Processing and Memory Devices: Power, Speed, and Capacity System unit –Houses the components responsible for processing (the CPU and memory) All other computer system devices are linked either directly or indirectly into the system unit housing

10 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition10 Processing Characteristics and Functions Computer execute an instruction during a machine cycle Completing the instruction and execution phase – make up one machine cycle Machine cycle time is measured in: –Nanoseconds (1 billionth of a second) –Picoseconds (1 trillionth of a second) –MIPS (millions of instructions per second)

11 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition11 Processing Characteristics and Functions (continued) Clock speed: series of electronic pulses produced at a predetermined rate that affects machine cycle time –Often measured in: Megahertz (MHz): millions of cycles per second Gigahertz (GHz): billions of cycles per second Microcode: predefined, elementary circuits and logical operations that the processor performs when it executes an instruction

12 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition12 Physical Characteristics of the CPU Collection of digital circuits on chips Electrical current flows through silicon – to turn the digital circuit on or off Gordon Moore – former Intel’s chairman hypothesised that progress in chip manufacturing: transistor density of chips will double every 18 months (Moore’s Law)

13 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition13 Physical Characteristics of the CPU (continued) Figure 3.3: Moore’s Law

14 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition14 Memory Characteristics and Functions Main memory –Located physically close to the CPU, but not on the CPU chip itself –Rapidly provides data and instructions to the CPU

15 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition15 Storage Capacity Table 3.1: Computer Storage Units

16 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition16 Types of Memory Figure 3.4: Basic Types of Memory Chips

17 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition17 Types of Memory (Cash Memory) Figure 3.5: Cache Memory

18 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition18 Multiprocessing Multiprocessing: simultaneous execution of two or more instructions at the same time Multiprocessing using coprocessors –Coprocessor: speeds processing by executing specific types of instructions while the CPU works on another processing activity

19 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition19 Parallel Computing Parallel computing: simultaneous execution of the same task on multiple processors to obtain results faster Massively parallel processing: –Speeds processing by linking hundreds or thousands of processors to operate at the same time, or in parallel –Each processor has its own bus, memory, disks, copy of the operating system, and applications

20 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition20 Parallel Computing (continued) 2 different approaches to achieving parallel computing –Single instruction/multiple data (SIMD) parallel processors –Multiple instruction/multiple data (MIMD) parallel processors Grid computing: use of a collection of computers, often owned by multiple individuals or organizations, to work in a coordinated manner to solve a common problem

21 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition21 Secondary Storage Permanent storage Compared with memory, offers the advantages of nonvolatility, greater capacity, and greater economy Selection of secondary storage : access methods, storage capacities, and portability required - determined by the information system’s objectives Example: credit card company

22 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition22 Access Methods Two types of access methods Sequential access: records must be retrieved in order in which it’s stored –Devices used are called sequential access storage devices (SASDs) Direct access: records can be retrieved in any order –Devices used are called direct access storage devices (DASDs)

23 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition23 Devices Magnetic tapes Magnetic disks Optical disks Digital video disk (DVD) Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) Memory cards Flash memory RAID Virtual tape

24 Magnetic Tapes Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition24 Sequential secondary storage medium Primarily for storing backups Tapes similar to audio and videocassettes Portion of tapes are magnetized to represent bits

25 Magnetic Disks Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition25 Direct access storage medium e.g. diskette, hard disks Allows fast data retrieval

26 Optical Disc Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition26 Data is recorded by special lasers that physically burn pits in the disk. Data accessed – optical disc device (compact disk player) e.g. CD-ROM – 740MB, CD-RW

27 DVD and HVD Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition27 DVD (Digital Video Disc) Looks like a CD but more storage capacity ~ 135min of digital video. Software, video games, movies HVD (Holographic Versatile Disc) Advanced optical disk – ongoing research Hold 200GB of data Write data 10 times faster than DVD

28 Memory cards Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition28 Functions as a hard disk drive Portable, relatively easy to use Need to use memory card reader/writer

29 Flash Memory Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition29 A silicon computer chip Keeps its memory when the power is shut off “Flash” – the memory cell is erased or reprogrammed in a single action or flash e.g. – Migo – keychain device, comes with software that captures files and settings from , word processing, web browser, presentation programs.

30 RAID and Virtual Tape Storage technologies RAID – –Redundant array of independent /inexpensive disks –duplicate existing data on drives, provides exact copy, store on different physical disk drives Virtual Tape –manages less frequently needed data –Move data to less costly storage media –Software – virtual tape server –Vendor – IBM and Storage Technology Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition30

31 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition31 Enterprise Storage Options Needs to store massive amount of data 3 forms: 1.Attached storage tape, hard disks, optical devices Simple, cost effective - single users and small groups Not allowed share storage 2.Network-attached storage (NAS) Storage devices attach to a network Users can share and access same information

32 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition32 Enterprise Storage Options (continued) Figure 3.9: Storage Area Network (SAN) 3.Storage area network (SAN) Special purpose, high speed network Provides direct connections between data-storage devices and computer Integrates different types of storage subsystems

33 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition33 Input and Output Devices: The Gateway to Computer Systems Through input and output devices, people provide data and instructions to the computer and receive results from it Selection of input and output devices depends on organizational goals and IS objectives

34 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition34 Characteristics and Functionality Nature of data- data can be human-readable or machine-readable Data entry: converts human-readable data into machine-readable form Data input: transfers machine-readable data into system Source data automation: capturing and editing data where the data is initially created and in a form that can be directly input to a computer

35 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition35 Input Devices Personal computer input devices –Keyboard –Mouse Speech-recognition technology –Input devices that recognize human speech –e.g. automate account identification process Digital cameras Terminals –Input and display devices that perform data entry and input at same time –Office, warehouse, factory

36 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition36 Input Devices (continued) Scanning devices Optical data readers Special scanner OMR – standardized tests OCR – convert handwritten to typed doc into digital data Magnetic stripe card –Swipe card Point-of-sale (POS) devices –Used in retail operations to enter sales information

37 Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) devices A system for reading banking data quickly Use special ink readable by people and computers e.g. bank check Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition37

38 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition38 Input Devices (continued) Automated teller machine (ATM) devices Pen input devices Touch-sensitive screens Bar-code scanners Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

39 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition39 Output Devices Display monitors Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) Printers and plotters Digital audio player

40 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition40 Special-Purpose Input and Output Devices Computer-based navigation systems –GPSs (Global positioning system), satellite based radio navigating system –Guide to specific destination Multiple function printers –Print, copy, fax,scan Eyebud screens –Portable media devices –Display video in front of one eye

41 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition41 Computer System Types, Selection, and Upgrading Computer classification: Special-purpose computers: used for limited applications by military and scientific research groups General-purpose computers: –used for a wide variety of applications –Single user at a time, multiple concurrent users

42 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition42 Computer System Types Handheld computers – single user, small size, portable Portable computers – laptops, notebooks, tablet Thin client –Low-cost, no extra drives, limited capabilities Desktop computers

43 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition43 Computer System Types (continued) Workstations – more powerful than personal computer, similar size to desktop, heavy mathematical computing, CAD. Servers – to perform special tasks, e.g. running network or Internet application.

44 Computer System Types (continued) Mainframe computers – large, powerful computer, shared by hundreds of concurrent users, connected via terminals Supercomputers –most powerful computers, fastest processing speed, highest performance. –Special purpose machines – weather forecast, military application, simulation of golf club designs. Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition44

45 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition45 Selecting and Upgrading Computer Systems Dispose of old equipment properly Consider factors such as speed, cost, and performance when upgrading –Hard drive –Main memory –Printer –DVD burners

46 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition46 Summary Hardware: machinery that assists in the input, processing, storage, and output activities of an information system Hardware components: central processing unit (CPU), input and output devices, communications devices, primary storage devices, and secondary storage devices Random access memory (RAM): temporary and volatile ROM (read-only memory): nonvolatile

47 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition47 Summary (continued) Multiprocessing: simultaneous execution of two or more instructions at the same time Sequential access: records must be retrieved in order Direct access: records can be retrieved in any order Examples of secondary storage devices: magnetic tapes and disks, DVDs, memory cards, etc. Enterprise storage options: attached storage, network-attached storage (NAS), and storage area network (SAN)

48 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition48 Summary (continued) Examples of input devices: keyboards, mice, voice- recognition devices, terminals, scanning devices, and touch-sensitive screens Examples of output devices: display monitors, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), printers, and plotters Computers can be classified as either special- purpose or general-purpose Computer system types: handheld computers, portable computers, desktop computers, workstations, servers, etc.


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