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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that causes staph infections in hospitals. How do bacteria gain resistance to an antibiotic?

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Presentation on theme: "Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that causes staph infections in hospitals. How do bacteria gain resistance to an antibiotic?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that causes staph infections in hospitals. How do bacteria gain resistance to an antibiotic? 1.Treatment with an antibiotic causes the bacteria to mutate to adapt to the antibiotic. 2.The antibiotic stimulates the growth of bacterial cells. 3.Some of the bacteria already have a mutation that confers resistance to the antibiotic, allowing them to survive and pass on the advantageous gene to their offspring. 4.The hospital environment causes the bacteria to mutate.

2 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that causes staph infections in hospitals. How do bacteria gain resistance to an antibiotic? 1.Treatment with an antibiotic causes the bacteria to mutate to adapt to the antibiotic. 2.The antibiotic stimulates the growth of bacterial cells. 3.Some of the bacteria already have a mutation that confers resistance to the antibiotic, allowing them to survive and pass on the advantageous gene to their offspring. 4.The hospital environment causes the bacteria to mutate.

3 What is a population? 1.A species and its interaction with its environment 2.The biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem 3.An individual organism and its niche 4.A group of interbreeding individuals that live in the same place at the same time and have the capacity to produce fertile offspring

4 What is a population? 1.A species and its interaction with its environment 2.The biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem 3.An individual organism and its niche 4.A group of interbreeding individuals that live in the same place at the same time and have the capacity to produce fertile offspring

5 Order the following from largest to smallest in size: 1.Gene, chromosome, nucleotide, DNA 2.Nucleotide, DNA, gene, chromosome 3.Chromosome, gene, DNA, nucleotide 4.DNA, chromosome, nucleotide, gene 5.Gene, nucleotide, DNA, chromosome

6 Order the following from largest to smallest in size: 1.Gene, chromosome, nucleotide, DNA 2.Nucleotide, DNA, gene, chromosome 3.Chromosome, gene, DNA, nucleotide 4.DNA, chromosome, nucleotide, gene 5.Gene, nucleotide, gene, chromosome

7 How might different versions of the same gene (alleles) be expressed at the level of the organism? 1.As identical genotypes 2.As different phenotypes 3.As identical traits 4.As chromatin or a chromosome

8 How might different versions of the same gene (alleles) be expressed at the level of the organism? 1.As identical genotypes 2.As different phenotypes 3.As identical traits 4.As chromatin or a chromosome

9 In betta fish, a single tail is dominant and a double tail is recessive. In a population of 200 betta fish, 25 fish have a double tail. What is the recessive allele frequency? % 2.25% 3.50% 4.65% 5.75%

10 In betta fish, a single tail is dominant and a double tail is recessive. In a population of 200 betta fish, 25 fish have a double tail. What is the recessive allele frequency? % 2.25% 3.50% 4.65% 5.75%

11 Evolutionary change occurs in association with all of the following except: 1.Mutations. 2.Gene flow. 3.Small population size. 4.Random mating. 5.Natural selection.

12 Evolutionary change occurs in association with all of the following except: 1.Mutations. 2.Gene flow. 3.Small population size. 4.Random mating. 5.Natural selection.

13 Why are mutations significant to populations? 1.Mutations produce genetic variation in a population. If the environment changes, part of the population will likely survive. 2.Mutations prevent genetic variation in a population. If the environment changes, part of the population will likely survive. 3.Mutations select for the most beneficial trait. If the environment changes, part of the population will survive. 4.Mutations weed out the weakest individuals in a population.

14 Why are mutations significant to populations? 1.Mutations produce genetic variation in a population. If the environment changes, part of the population will likely survive. 2.Mutations prevent genetic variation in a population. If the environment changes, part of the population will likely survive. 3.Mutations select for the most beneficial trait. If the environment changes, part of the population will survive. 4.Mutations weed out the weakest individuals in a population.

15 Two populations of gorillas, one living in the mountains and one living in the valley, no longer mate or exchange alleles in their gene pools. What can happen? 1.With no gene flow, the two populations will remain identical to each other. 2.With no gene flow, the two populations may become so different that they become different species. 3.With no gene flow, each population will have an increased number of mutations. 4.With no gene flow, the two populations will express their alleles or show their traits differently.

16 Two populations of gorillas, one living in the mountains and one living in the valley, no longer mate or exchange alleles in their gene pools. What can happen? 1.With no gene flow, the two populations will remain identical to each other. 2.With no gene flow, the two populations may become so different that they become different species. 3.With no gene flow, each population will have an increased number of mutations. 4.With no gene flow, the two populations will express their alleles or show their traits differently.

17 Why does genetic drift affect a small population more than it affects a large population? 1.A small population will be left with more allele variations. 2.A chance event is more likely to eliminate an allele from a small population, leaving it with reduced allelic variation. 3.Genetic drift always kills off small populations. 4.A small population will experience gene flow.

18 Why does genetic drift affect a small population more than it affects a large population? 1.A small population will be left with more allele variations. 2.A chance event is more likely to eliminate an allele from a small population, leaving it with reduced allelic variation. 3.Genetic drift always kills off small populations. 4.A small population will experience gene flow.

19 Why do many purebred German shepherds, golden retrievers, and Doberman pinschers have hip dysplasia and related joint disorders? 1.Breeding is random. 2.Breeding is not random. 3.They are from a small population. 4.They are from a large population. 5.They exhibit gene flow in a population.

20 Why do many purebred German shepherds, golden retrievers, and Doberman pinschers have hip dysplasia and related joint disorders? 1.Breeding is random. 2.Breeding is not random. 3.They are from a small population. 4.They are from a large population. 5.They exhibit gene flow in a population.

21 Why is natural selection also called “survival of the fittest”? 1.The strongest organisms will always survive. 2.Those organisms with the most advantageous traits must mate. 3.Individuals with advantageous traits survive to pass the traits on to their offspring. 4.There is an origin of the species.

22 Why is natural selection also called “survival of the fittest”? 1.The strongest organisms will always survive. 2.Those organisms with the most advantageous traits must mate. 3.Individuals with advantageous traits survive to pass the traits on to their offspring. 4.There is an origin of the species.

23 Newts of the genus Taricha are poisonous, deterring their predators from eating them. The common garter snake, a predator, has evolved a resistance to the newt toxins. This situation is an example of: 1.Competition 2.Natural selection 3.Artificial selection 4.Sexual selection 5.Coevolution

24 Newts of the genus Taricha are poisonous, deterring their predators from eating them. The common garter snake, a predator, has evolved a resistance to the newt toxins. This situation is an example of: 1.Competition 2.Natural selection 3.Artificial selection 4.Sexual selection 5.Coevolution

25 A farmer uses insecticide but still gets crop damage. Many of the targeted insects developed insecticide resistance. What mode of natural selection has occurred? 1.Directional selection 2.Stabilizing selection 3.Disruptive selection 4.Artificial selection 5.Coevolution

26 A farmer uses insecticide but still gets crop damage. Many of the targeted insects developed insecticide resistance. What mode of natural selection has occurred? 1.Directional selection 2.Stabilizing selection 3.Disruptive selection 4.Artificial selection 5.Coevolution

27 Question 15-13

28 In an island population of birds, the large birds eat the only seeds available, which are large, and the small birds feed on flower nectar. The medium-sized birds have a hard time eating both the seeds and the nectar. What mode of natural selection has occurred? 1.Directional selection 2.Stabilizing selection 3.Disruptive selection 4.Artificial selection 5.Coevolution

29 In an island population of birds, the large birds eat the only seeds available, which are large, and the small birds feed on flower nectar. The medium-sized birds have a hard time eating both the seeds and the nectar. What mode of natural selection has occurred? 1.Directional selection 2.Stabilizing selection 3.Disruptive selection 4.Artificial selection 5.Coevolution

30 One allele encodes for normal hemoglobin, forming biconcave red blood cells; another allele encodes for defective hemoglobin, forming irregularly shaped red blood cells that cause sickle-cell anemia. What is the benefit of having both alleles in a population? 1.Through natural selection, individuals with the sickle-cell allele will be removed from the gene pool. 2.The different phenotypes produced are favored under different environmental conditions. 3.Individuals with the sickle-cell allele enjoy an increased fitness. 4.They provide variation in the population.

31 One allele encodes for normal hemoglobin, forming biconcave red blood cells; another allele encodes for defective hemoglobin, forming irregularly shaped red blood cells that cause sickle-cell anemia. What is the benefit of having both alleles in a population? 1.Through natural selection, individuals with the sickle-cell allele will be removed from the gene pool. 2.The different phenotypes produced are favored under different environmental conditions. 3.Individuals with the sickle-cell allele enjoy an increased fitness. 4.They provide variation in the population.

32 Suppose that 16% of a population exhibits a recessive phenotype. What does this 16%, as a decimal, represent in the Hardy-Weinberg equation? 1.p 2 2.2pq 3.q 2 4.p 5.q

33 Suppose that 16% of a population exhibits a recessive phenotype. What does this 16%, as a decimal, represent in the Hardy-Weinberg equation? 1.p 2 2.2pq 3.q 2 4.p 5.q

34 If q 2 = 0.16 for a population, then we can rearrange the equation ___________ to solve for p. 1.p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 2.p + q = 1

35 If q 2 = 0.16 for a population, then we can rearrange the equation ___________ to solve for p. 1.p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 2.p+q = 1

36 If q = 0.4 and p = 0.6 for a population, then 2pq = _____

37 If q = 0.4 and p = 0.6 for a population, then 2pq = _____

38 If q = 0.4, p = 0.6, and 2pq = 0.48 for a population, then both Hardy-Weinberg equations must add up to ____

39 If q = 0.4, p = 0.6, and 2pq = 0.48 for a population, then both Hardy-Weinberg equations must add up to ____


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