Presentation on theme: "Micro Evolution -Evolution on the smallest scale"— Presentation transcript:
1Micro Evolution -Evolution on the smallest scale -Evolutionary change within a populationRead p. 468
2Chapter 23 ObjectivesMutation and Sexual Reproduction produce genetic variation and allow evolution to occur.To understand the Hardy-Weinberg equation.Natural Selection, Genetic Drift and Gene Flow can alter allele frequencies within a populationNatural Selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes adaptive EvolutionOnly inherited traits are passed on. The color in these caterpillars are due to diet not genetics.
3Genetic Variation -Genetic variation within a population 1. Gene Variability2. Nucleotide Variability-Geographic Variation1. Populations in different locations can have genetic variation2. Some due to Natural Selection and others by chance.Cline variation due to natural selectionExample of chromosomal changes that spread by drift or chance events. (No phenotypic differences between two populations.)
4Mutations The ultimate source of new alleles Only mutations on gamete forming cells are passed on. (Not Somatic cell mutations)Most mutations aren’t passed onPoint Mutations are changes in at least one base pair.Why are most mutations harmless or neutral?Many mutations happen on the non protein coding part of DNA.If mutation does occur on protein coding portion it may not change the amino acid it codes for.Even if the amino acid changes it may not change the shape of the protein.Mutations that do alter protein coding genes.Deletion, disruption, or rearrangement of protein coding genes results in harmful mutationsDuplication can be beneficial. (Olfactory genes in mammals) p. 471Sexual Reproduction promotes genetic variation byCrossing overIndependent AssortmentRandom Fertilization
5Populations and Gene Pools -Population is a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed.-Gene Pool is the sum of all alleles within the population-Allele Frequency is the total amount of dominant and recessive alleles in an environment
6Hardy-Weinberg Conditions -Hardy-Weinberg equation is used to predict percentage of a genotype being heterozygous or homozygousp2 + 2pq + q2 = 1p = one alleleq = different alleleHardy-Weinberg Principle – Describes a hypothetical population that isn’t evolving-A population whose gene pool will remain constant or at equilibrium if only Mendalian segregation and recombination of alleles is at play-Gene pool calculation is the sum of all dominant alleles and the sum of all recessive allelesHardy-Weinberg Conditions*Populations shift or evolve if at least one of the below conditions aren’t met(p. 474)No mutations occurRandom MatingNo Natural SelectionExtremely large population sizeNo Gene Flow*Application example p. 474
71. Random events can cause genetic drift Genetic Drift is a condition that alters allele frequencies within a population. P. 4761. Random events can cause genetic drift** Small populations2. The Founder Effect3. The bottle neck effectPossible Outcomes-Genetic Drift can lead to loss of genetic variation-Genetic Drift can cause harmful alleles to become fixed in a populationImportant to note is that a change in allele frequency means the population is evolving.
8Gene Flow also contributes to changes in Allele Frequency -Transfer of alleles into our out of a population-Copper mine example p. 478Important to note is that a change in allele frequency means the population is evolving.
9Natural Selection contributes to changing allele frequencies within a population Reproductive success = passing on genes and contributing to the population’s gene poolRelative Fitness leads to an individual’s advantage or disadvantage to reproduceIndividual’s phenotypic traitsGives Individual Relative Fitness for Environment1. Directional Selection Favors extremes phenotypes mostly caused by extreme environmental changesGenotypes indirectly contribute to individual’s relative fitness2. Disruptive Selection favors phenotypes at both extremes**Natural Selection is the only condition that leads to adaptive evolution3. Stabilizing Selection favors intermediate phenotypesImportant to note is that a change in allele frequency means the population is evolving.
10Limitations to Natural Selection p. 484Selection can only act on existing variationsEvolution is limited by historical constraintsAdaptations are often compromisesChance, Natural Selection and the Environment interactFrequency Dependent Selection p. 484Sexual Selection p. 483