Presentation on theme: "The Real World 2 nd Edition AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY Kerry Ferris and Jill Stein Chapter 2 Sociology’s Family Tree: Theories and Theorists."— Presentation transcript:
The Real World 2 nd Edition AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY Kerry Ferris and Jill Stein Chapter 2 Sociology’s Family Tree: Theories and Theorists
2 Sociological Theories Theories in sociology are propositions that explain the social world and help to make predictions about future events. Theories are also sometimes referred to as approaches, schools of thought, paradigms, or perspectives.
6 Founders of Sociology, continued Harriet Martineau: A social activist who traveled the United States and wrote about social changes which were radical for this time period. Martineau translated Comte’s work into English, making his ideas accessible to England and America.
8 Founders of Sociology, continued Herbert Spencer was the first great English-speaking sociologist. Spencer believed in evolution and coined the phrase “ survival of the fittest. ” He believed that societies evolve through time by adapting to their changing environment. His philosophy is often referred to as “ social Darwinism. ”
10 Founders of Sociology, continued Emile Durkheim worked to establish sociology as an important academic discipline. Interested in the social factors that bond and hold people together Studied the correlation between social isolation and suicide
14 Marx believed that capitalism was creating social inequality between the bourgeoisie, who owned the means of production (money, factories, natural resources, land), and the proletariat, who were the workers. According to Marx, this inequality leads to class conflict. Founders of Sociology, continued
15 Founders of Sociology, continued Max Weber was also interested in how society was becoming industrialized. He was concerned with the process of rationalization, applying economic logic to all human activity. He believed that contemporary life was filled with disenchantment, the result of the dehumanizing features of modern societies.
17 Founders of Sociology, continued Sigmund Freud is usually associated with psychoanalysis, but his theories have helped sociologists gain a better understanding of social behavior. Freud developed the idea of the subconscious and the unconscious mind, which he believed controls most of our drives, impulses, thoughts, and behaviors.
19 Schools of Thought Your book refers to paradigms, or schools of thought. Paradigms are ways of thinking or theoretical umbrellas, meant to provide a broad explanation for the way things work.
20 Modern Schools of Thought Structural Functionalism: Society is viewed as an ordered system of interrelated parts, or structures, which are the social institutions that make up society (family, education, politics, the economy). Each of these different structures meets the needs of society by performing specific functions for the whole system (society).
21 Modern Schools of Thought, continued Conflict Theory: Sees social conflict as the basis of society and social change.
22 Modern Schools of Thought, continued Symbolic Interactionism: Sees interaction and meaning as central to society and assumes that meanings are not inherent but are created through interaction.
23 New Theoretical Approaches Feminist Theory: Looks at gender inequalities in society and the way that gender structures the social world, and considers remedies to these inequalities.
24 New Theoretical Approaches, continued Queer Theory: Proposes that categories of sexual identity are social constructs and that no sexual category is fundamentally either deviant or normal.
25 New Theoretical Approaches, continued Postmodernist Theory: Suggests that social reality is diverse, pluralistic, and constantly changing.
26 Theories and Theorists | Concept Quiz Abstract propositions that both explain the social world and make predictions about future events are known as: a. theories b. social inequalities c. ideas d. social assumptions e. means of production
27 Theories and Theorists | Concept Quiz What are paradigms? a. broad theoretical perspectives b. specific research methods c. dominant sociological applications d. all of the above e. none of the above
28 Theories and Theorists | Concept Quiz Marx believed that there was a class struggle between: a. groups of people who worked alongside one another b. groups of people who practiced different religions c. people who owned the means of production and people who worked for a wage. d. people who were born rich versus people who earned their wealth e. people who were born poor versus people who fell into poverty due to poor work ethic
29 Theories and Theorists | Concept Quiz Which of these sociological paradigms has proved to be the most influential of the twentieth century? a. structural functionalism b. conflict theory c. symbolic interactionism d. world-systems theory e. critical race theory