We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byElyssa Bartholomew
Modified about 1 year ago
Chapter 6: Spencer, Darwin, and an Evolutionary Parable for Our Time © 2014 Mark Moberg
In the early 19th century, Herbert Spencer was among the few scholars who continued to advocate evolutionary theory. His views have become known as Social Darwinism: as the “natural” order of society, competition results in progress by eliminating society’s weakest members, leaving superior representatives of humanity to survive. Spencer opposed any intervention that violated this “natural law,” including public schools, public hospitals, and welfare. In his Origin of Species, Darwin extended Spencer’s assumptions into nature (a “struggle for existence” within “nature, red in tooth and claw”). It is often mistakenly assumed that Edward B. Tylor and Lewis Henry Morgan were directly inspired by Darwin’s Origin. While Darwin viewed evolution as a branching tree, with each branch diverging into a separate species, Tylor and Morgan embrace the notion of orthogenesis, or evolution along a single line leading to greater social progress. Tylor and Morgan assumed that societies develop this way because of psychic unity: the minds of people at a given evolutionary stage operate in similar fashion, leading them to independently invent similar cultural practices. Finally, unlike Darwin, competition plays no role in evolutionary progress as understood by Tylor and Morgan. © 2014 Mark Moberg
Tylor and Morgan identified the stages of evolution as “savagery, barbarism, and civilization,” a scheme originating with Ferguson in the 18th century. Societies were positioned on this evolutionary line according to their level of social and technological progress; both schemes were ethnocentric in claiming that the US and England represented the pinnacle of civilization. Tylor and Morgan differed in their applications of evolutionary theory. Tylor suggested that the first religious impulses arose from speculation about death and dreaming, leading people to conceive of the soul as a force that animates the body and departs from it upon death. He conceded some degree of rational thought to people at the lower stages of development, while Morgan dismissed all primitive religions as “grotesque and unintelligible”! Yet, Morgan’s discovery that all societies follow one of six kinship terminology systems still stands as an axiom within anthropology. Both scholars were confounded by the side-by-side existence of traits belonging to different evolutionary stages (e.g. a farmer in modern Europe who nails a horseshoe above a door as a talisman for “good luck”). They explained such discrepancies as “survivals,” or cultural traits that persist from habit into a higher stage of evolutionary development. © 2014 Mark Moberg
Unilinear Evolutionism Anthropological Theory IB Anthropology UWC Costa Rica.
Chapter 4, The Growth of Anthropological Theory Key Terms.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 3 History of Anthropological Theory.
Chapter 4 The Development of Anthropological Thought.
Chapter 7: Boas and the Demise of Cultural Evolution © 2014 Mark Moberg.
Take out 1.Pen 2.Highlighters. Homework For Tuesday Night 1.Read: Science and Midcentury (pages ) 2.Message Board Question: Ch 24 Science and Midcentury.
Pioneers of Sociology. Auguste Comte ( ) Coined the term "Sociology" Considered the father of positivism Positivism = Way of thinking based.
The drawbacks of Unilinear Cultural Evolution models Howard Culbertson Southern Nazarene University Cultural Anthropology.
Chapter 23 Section 3 World History 3 Social Sciences in the Industrial Age Mr. Love Notes – game day.
History of Cultural Anthropology. Western Science 1500 Europe in isolation Supernatural explanations explained everything Exploration of world caused.
Pioneers of Anthropology. Social Darwinism Darwin’s theory of natural selection was mis- -applied to the social world, creating the idea of “survival.
Biological and Social Evolution SOC 370: Social Change Dr. Kimberly Martin.
Deme : local, interbreeding population that is defined in terms of its genetic composition (for example allele frequencies). Subspecies : group of.
Science and Social Science In the 19 th century there was a belief that the world could be understood through science and that The natural world and human.
Questions to Ponder What are the processes that hold society together? What are the processes that change society? Which one is sports a part of? Do you.
Theories of Archaeology Theories leading up Contemporary Archaeology.
15-3 Darwin Presents His Case. Darwin’s Return Upon Darwin’s return to England in 1836, he began to take a close look at the specimens he brought back.
Comparison Differences –Source –Connections to other aspects of culture history, religion, political structures, economics, kinship systems, etc. –E.g.
Chapter 4 The Growth of Anthropological Theory (Ferraro, Gary. Cultural Anthropology. An Applied Perspective. 7 th ed. (2008)
Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution. 1. The modern theory of evolution is the fundamental concept in biology.
Theories of Religion How many of them are there?.
Marx and Darwin. August Comte ( ) Positivism- the key to civilization is humanities understanding of the world. 3 Stages Theological Stage-
The World Before Anthropology The Social Milieu that Gave Shape to the Discipline.
Ch 15 “Darwin’s Theory of Evolution” Evolution, or change over time, is the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms The.
New Unit: EVOLUTION. EVOLUTION Evolution is not a belief system. It is a scientific concept. It has no role in defining religion or religious.
Evolution??? Wha t is it?. Evolution: A change over time in the genetic makeup of a population. Evolutionary adaptation: Accumulation of heritable traits.
Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. – Theodosius Dobzhansky Evolution Charles Darwin in later years.
Chapter 2 The Development of Evolutionary Theory.
Franz Boas ( ). Boas started the article showing the development of the methods of inquiry from the second half of the last century up to the.
Introduction to Anthropology Test 1 Review Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
1 Organisms Change Over Time. Darwin proposed that organisms descended from common ancestors Idea that organisms change with time, diverging from.
Anthropology and Sociology of Development Anthropology, Development and Development Studies.
Evolution. Charles Darwin Was a British Naturalist (a person who studies the natural world). He came up with theory of Evolution by Natural Selection.
As we showed you through our demonstration, the main idea of this chapter was that survival of the fittest is not equivalent to evolution. It is not.
Intro to Theory of Evolution Standard: S7L5a. Explain that physical characteristics of organisms have changed over successive generations.
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY An Introduction. Anthropology: An Introduction What is culture? *It is a specific group’s learned and shared behaviors, knowledge.
Darwin and Social Darwinism CHY4U Unit th Century Scientific Advances Science is trendy and practical – Electron – Compound microscope – Pasteurization.
( ) massey.org.uk/holyoake/images/herbert_spencer.jpg "Every man is free to do that which he wills, provided he infringes not the.
The issue is whether people are poor because of personal failing or as a result of the unfair nature of the economic systems. With which side of the issue.
Evolution by natural selection How do species change over time?
19 th Century Ethics Darwin And Freud. Late 19 th /Early 20 th Century: Skepticism as a Worldview Skepticism: 1.Humans are incapable of achieving lasting.
Creation Stories vs. The Scientific Theory It is important to remember that many of these creation stories were not intended for literal interpretation.
Evolution of Religion Nature Religions / Animism.
Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Evidence of Evolution Objectives 16.3 & 16.4 Darwin & Evidence of Evolution -Describe the conditions under which natural.
Chapter 15-3: Darwin Presents His Case Essential Questions: How does natural variation relate to artificial selection? How does natural variation relate.
Darwin’s Influences Natural Selection Evidence Evolution Theory GeneticsSpeciation $ 200 $ 200$200 $ 200 $ 200 $400 $ 400$400 $ 400$400 $600 $ 600$600.
History of Anthropology Brief Introduction to Significant Theorists and Ideas.
Principles of Evolution. Evolution is the change in inheritable traits in a population over generations. Change in traits is caused by changes in the.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.