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Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues

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1 Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues
Chapter 3a Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues

2 Intracellular compartments Tissue types and characteristics
About this Chapter Body compartments Biological membranes Intracellular compartments Tissue types and characteristics Tissue remodeling Organs

3 Three Major Body Cavities
POSTERIOR ANTERIOR Cranial cavity Pleural sac Thoracic cavity Pericardial sac Diaphragm Abdominal cavity Abdominopelvic cavity Pelvic cavity Figure 3-1

4 Body Cavities

5 Lumens of Hollow Organs
Heart Lungs Blood vessels Intestines Lumen Not the internal environment

6 Functional Compartments
Outside Body Extracellular fluid Plasma Interstitial fluid Intracellular fluid Organelles and vacuoles

7 Body Fluid Compartments
Capillary wall Cell membrane Blood cells Blood vessel Plasma Interstitial fluid Intracellular fluid ECF ICF Cell membrane Figure 3-2

8 Cell Membrane: Overview
Membranes in the body Pericardial membrane Loose connective tissue Cell Heart The pericardial membrane is a tissue that surrounds the heart. Seen magnified, the pericardial membrane is a layer of flattened epithelial cells supported by connective tissue. Each cell of the pericardial membrane has a cell membrane surrounding it. The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer. Figure 3-3

9 Cell Membrane: Functions
Physical barrier Gateway for exchange Communication Cell structure

10 Cell Membrane: Structure
The fluid mosaic model of a biological membrane Carbohydrate group of glycoprotein Carbohydrate group of glycolipid Extracellular surface of membrane Membrane splits into layers in freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Proteins Intracellular surface of membrane Lipid tails form the interior layer of the membrane. Cholesterol molecules insert themselves into the lipid layer. Phospholipid heads face the aqueous intracellular and extracellular compartments. Figure 3-4

11 Cell Membrane: Composition
Lipids Phospholipids Sphingolipids Cholesterol Proteins Integral Peripheral Lipid-anchored

12 Cell Membrane: Composition
Table 3-1

13 Cell Membrane: Structure and Formation
Phospholipids have polar and non-polar regions (a) Phospholipid molecules have polar heads and nonpolar tails. The “R” group is a variable polar group. Polar head (hydrophilic) Nonpolar fatty acid tail (hydrophobic) Structural model Molecular models Stylized model Figure 3-5a

14 Cell Membrane: Formation
Membrane phospholipids form bilayers, micelles, or liposomes Phospholipids arrange themselves so that their nonpolar tails are not in contact with aqueous solutions such as extracellular fluid. (b) Tails Phospholipid bilayer forms a sheet. Micelles are droplets of phospholipids. Liposomes have an aqueous center. Figure 3-5b

15 Cell Membrane: Proteins
The three types of membrane proteins: integral, peripheral, and lipid-anchored Integral (transmembrane) protein Glycoprotein Peripheral protein Lipid-anchored proteins Peripheral protein Cytoskeleton proteins Cytoplasm Figure 3-6

16 Cell Membrane: Lipid Rafts
Sphingolipids and alkaline phosphatase Figure 3-8

17 Cell Membrane Components
consists of Cholesterol Phospholipids, Sphingolipids Carbohydrates Proteins together form together form together form Lipid bilayer Glycolipids Glycoproteins functions as whose functions include Selective barrier between cytosol and external environment Structural stability Cell recognition Immune response Figure 3-9

18 Intracellular Compartments
Cytoplasm Cytosol Inclusions Organelles Nucleus

19 A map for the study of cell structure
Cell Compartments THE CELL A map for the study of cell structure is composed of Cell membrane Nucleus Cytoplasm Cytosol Membranous organelles Inclusions • Mitochondria • Endoplasmic reticulum • Golgi complex • Lysosomes • Peroxisomes • Lipid droplets • Glycogen granules • Ribosomes • Vaults • Proteasomes • Cytoskeleton • Centrioles • Centrosomes • Cilia • Flagella Extracellular fluid Figure 3-11

20 Inclusions Have No Membranes
Ribosomes Free Fixed Polyribosomes Proteasomes Vaults RNA/protein

21 Cytoplasmic Proteins Fibers
Actin (microfilaments) Intermediate Myosin Keratin Neurofilaments Microtubules Tubulin Centrioles, cilia, flagella

22 Centrioles Cilia and flagella Microtubule function Pull chromosomes
Form core in cilia Cilia and flagella Fluid movement

23 Centrioles Figure 3-13a–b

24 Cilia and Flagella Figure 3-13c–d

25 Cytoskeleton: Function
Cell shape Internal organization Intracellular transport Assembly of cells into tissues Movement

26 Cytoskeleton and Cytoplasmic Protein Fibers
Microvilli increase cell surface area. They are supported by microfilaments. Microfilaments form a network just inside the cell membrane. Microtubules are the largest cytoskeleton fiber. Intermediate filaments include myosin and keratin. (a) (b) Figure 3-14

27 Cytoskeleton and Cytoplasmic Protein Fibers
Motor proteins move on cytoskeletal fibers Organelle Motor protein ATP Direction of movement Cytoskeletal fiber Figure 3-15

28 Membrane-enclosed compartments Unique DNA
Mitochondria Membrane-enclosed compartments Unique DNA Site of cellular ATP generation

29 Mitochondria Figure 3-16 Cytoplasm of cell Inner membrane Matrix
Matrix is the innermost compartment. Outer membrane Cristae The intermembrane space forms a compartment. Cytosolic side of membrane Figure 3-16

30 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Smooth ER Synthesis of fatty acids, steroids, lipids Modified forms in liver, kidney, muscles Rough ER Rows of ribosomes Protein assembly and modification

31 Endoplasmic Reticulum
Ribosomes are attached to cytosolic side of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Lumen of endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic reticulum Figure 3-17

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