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Chapter 3a Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues. About this Chapter Body compartments Biological membranes Intracellular compartments Tissue types and.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3a Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues. About this Chapter Body compartments Biological membranes Intracellular compartments Tissue types and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3a Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues

2 About this Chapter Body compartments Biological membranes Intracellular compartments Tissue types and characteristics Tissue remodeling Organs

3 Three Major Body Cavities Figure 3-1 Pleural sac Pericardial sac Diaphragm Pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity Abdominopelvic cavity POSTERIORANTERIOR Cranial cavity Thoracic cavity

4 Body Cavities

5 Lumens of Hollow Organs Hollow organs Heart Lungs Blood vessels Intestines Lumen Not the internal environment

6 Functional Compartments 1.Outside Body 2.Extracellular fluid Plasma Interstitial fluid 3.Intracellular fluid 4.Organelles and vacuoles

7 Body Fluid Compartments Figure 3-2 ICFECF PlasmaInterstitial fluidIntracellular fluid Blood vessel Cell membrane Cell membrane Blood cells Capillary wall

8 Cell Membrane: Overview Membranes in the body Figure 3-3 Cell Loose connective tissue Seen magnified, the pericardial membrane is a layer of flattened epithelial cells supported by connective tissue. The pericardial membrane is a tissue that surrounds the heart. Each cell of the pericardial membrane has a cell membrane surrounding it. The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer. Pericardial membrane Heart

9 Cell Membrane: Functions Physical barrier Gateway for exchange Communication Cell structure

10 Cell Membrane: Structure The fluid mosaic model of a biological membrane Figure 3-4 Cholesterol molecules insert themselves into the lipid layer. Carbohydrate group of glycoprotein Carbohydrate group of glycolipid Extracellular surface of membrane Phospholipid heads face the aqueous intracellular and extracellular compartments. Lipid tails form the interior layer of the membrane. Intracellular surface of membrane Membrane splits into layers in freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Proteins

11 Integral Peripheral Lipid-anchored Cell Membrane: Composition Lipids Phospholipids Sphingolipids Cholesterol

12 Cell Membrane: Composition Table 3-1

13 Cell Membrane: Structure and Formation Phospholipids have polar and non-polar regions Figure 3-5a Phospholipid molecules have polar heads and nonpolar tails. The “R” group is a variable polar group. Nonpolar fatty acid tail (hydrophobic) Polar head (hydrophilic) Stylized modelMolecular modelsStructural model (a)

14 Figure 3-5b Cell Membrane: Formation Membrane phospholipids form bilayers, micelles, or liposomes Phospholipids arrange themselves so that their nonpolar tails are not in contact with aqueous solutions such as extracellular fluid. Phospholipid bilayer forms a sheet. Micelles are droplets of phospholipids. Liposomes have an aqueous center. Tails (b)

15 Cell Membrane: Proteins The three types of membrane proteins: integral, peripheral, and lipid-anchored Figure 3-6 Peripheral protein Glycoprotein Peripheral protein Integral (transmembrane) protein Cytoskeleton proteins Lipid-anchored proteins Cytoplasm

16 Cell Membrane: Lipid Rafts Sphingolipids and alkaline phosphatase Figure 3-8

17 Cell Membrane Components Figure 3-9 CholesterolProteinsPhospholipids, SphingolipidsCarbohydrates Glycoproteins Lipid bilayer Glycolipids Cell recognition Immune response Structural stability CELL MEMBRANE consists of together form functions as together form whose functions include Selective barrier between cytosol and external environment

18 Intracellular Compartments Cytoplasm Cytosol Inclusions Organelles Nucleus

19 Cell Compartments A map for the study of cell structure Figure 3-11 Cytoplasm Cytosol Nucleus Cell membrane THE CELL is composed of Lipid droplets Glycogen granules Ribosomes Vaults Proteasomes Cytoskeleton Centrioles Centrosomes Cilia Flagella Inclusions Mitochondria Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi complex Lysosomes Peroxisomes Membranous organelles Extracellular fluid

20 Inclusions Have No Membranes Ribosomes Free Fixed Polyribosomes Proteasomes Vaults RNA/protein

21 Cytoplasmic Proteins Fibers Actin (microfilaments) Intermediate Myosin Keratin Neurofilaments Microtubules Tubulin Centrioles, cilia, flagella

22 Microtubule function Centrioles Pull chromosomes Form core in cilia Cilia and flagella Fluid movement

23 Centrioles Figure 3-13a–b

24 Cilia and Flagella Figure 3-13c–d

25 Cytoskeleton: Function Cell shape Internal organization Intracellular transport Assembly of cells into tissues Movement

26 Cytoskeleton and Cytoplasmic Protein Fibers Figure 3-14 (b) Microvilli increase cell surface area. They are supported by microfilaments. Microfilaments form a network just inside the cell membrane. Microtubules are the largest cytoskeleton fiber. Intermediate filaments include myosin and keratin. (a)

27 Figure 3-15 Cytoskeleton and Cytoplasmic Protein Fibers Motor proteins move on cytoskeletal fibers Cytoskeletal fiber Organelle Motor protein Direction of movement ATP

28 Mitochondria Membrane-enclosed compartments Unique DNA Site of cellular ATP generation

29 Mitochondria Figure 3-16 Matrix is the innermost compartment. Cytosolic side of membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane Cytoplasm of cell Matrix Cristae The intermembrane space forms a compartment.

30 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Smooth ER Synthesis of fatty acids, steroids, lipids Modified forms in liver, kidney, muscles Rough ER Rows of ribosomes Protein assembly and modification

31 Endoplasmic Reticulum Figure 3-17 Ribosomes are attached to cytosolic side of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Lumen of endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

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