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Cognition & Language Chapter 7 Part I William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Cognition & Language Chapter 7 Part I William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cognition & Language Chapter 7 Part I William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005

2 Summary A human being is inherently –biological –conditioned by the environment –able to gather data about the world through the senses and organize that data –emotional –intelligent critical thinker (convergent thinking) creative thinker (divergent thinking –able to create and use knowledge

3 Organization of Knowledge Declarative –Semantic –Episodic Procedural (non-declarative) Images

4 Imagery The representation in the mind of a sensory experience –Visual –Auditory –Gustatory –Motor –Olfactory –Tactile

5 Imagery Visual images can be manipulated mentally much as we would if we were actually holding and looking at the object Parts of an image are retrieved; then mental processes used to arrange or assemble those parts into the proper whole Both the left and right hemispheres participate in the processes of forming visual images

6 Imagery Sports psychologists have found that athletes skilled in visualization can actually improve their performance by practicing mentally Brain-imaging studies show that –generally the same brain areas are activated whether a person is performing a given task or mentally rehearsing the task using imagery –the same regions in the motor cortex and related areas that are involved in the physical movements required for rotation of objects are also very active during mental imaging

7 Concepts A mental category used to represent a class or group of objects, people, organizations, events, situations, or relations that share common characteristics or attributes –Formal concept A concept that is clearly defined by a set of rules, a formal definition, or a classification system; an artificial concept –Natural concept A concept acquired not from a definition but through everyday perceptions and experiences; a fuzzy concept We acquire many natural concepts through experiences with examples or positive instances of the concept

8 Concepts Prototype –A category member that embodies the most common and typical features of a concept Exemplars –The individual instances of a concept that are stored in memory from personal experiences –To decide whether an unfamiliar item belongs to a concept, we compare it with exemplars –Experts have better, more detailed conception of exemplars

9 Reasoning Deductive reasoning –A form of thinking in which conclusions are drawn from a set of facts –Reasoning from the general to the specific, or drawing particular conclusions from general principles

10 Reasoning Syllogism –A scheme for logical reasoning in which two statements known as premises are followed by a valid conclusion Example –Major premise: All of Prof. Bob’s pencils are yellow –Minor premise: Daniel has borrowed a pencil from Prof. Bob –Conclusion: The pencil Daniel borrowed from Prof. Bob is yellow

11 Reasoning Inductive reasoning –A form of reasoning in which general conclusions are drawn from particular facts or individual cases –Resulting in conclusions which might be true –Premises can be judged to be false on the basis of conclusions, but they cannot be judged to be true

12 Reasoning Many people, especially those who don’t listen carefully to instructions or follow them well, have difficulty with formal reasoning problems Research suggests that people can improve their reasoning skills when exposed to step-by- step instruction and practice in formal reasoning

13 Reasoning Deduction, induction, and the scientific method –Inductive reasoning is used to formulate a hypothesis based on observations –Deductive reasoning is used in the design of a study –Once formulated, the hypothesis becomes a major premise, and the method used to test it, a minor premise –The outcome of the study is the conclusion

14 Problem Solving Thoughts and actions required to achieve a desired goal that is not readily attainable

15 Approaches to Problem Solving Trial and error –An approach to problem solving in which one solution after another is tried in no particular order until an answer is found –When you possess relevant background knowledge, using the knowledge to find a solution to a problem is more efficient than using trial and error Algorithm –A systematic, step-by-step procedure, such as a mathematical formula, that guarantees a solution to a problem of a certain type if the algorithm is appropriate and is executed properly

16 Approaches to Problem Solving Heuristics –Person discovers the steps needed to solve a problem by defining the desired goal and working backwards to the current condition –Derived from experience; no guarantee of its accuracy or usefulness –Means-end analysis A heuristic strategy in which the current position is compared with the desired goal, and a series of steps are formulated and taken to close the gap between them –Analogy heuristic A rule of thumb that applies a solution that solved a problem in the past to a current problem that shares many similar features

17 Functional fixedness –The failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems because of a tendency to view objects only in terms of their customary functions –Suppose you injured your leg and knew that you should apply ice to prevent swelling, but you had no ice cubes If you suffered from functional fixedness, you might believe there was nothing you could do Rather than thinking about the object that you don’t have, think about the function that it performs What you need is something very cold – not necessarily an ice bag, but a cold can of soda could be a solution Impediments to Problem Solving

18 Mental set –The tendency to apply a familiar strategy to the solution of a problem without carefully considering the special requirements of that problem –Recent research indicates that our problem-solving abilities may remain relatively undiminished over our lifetimes, even though our pace may slow down a little with age

19 Decision Making Selection of alternative from among several available Framing –The way information is presented so as to emphasize either a potential gain or a potential loss as the outcome

20 Decision Making Additive strategy –A decision-making approach in which each alternative is rated on each important factor affecting the decision and the alternative rated highest overall is chosen Elimination by aspects –The factors on which the alternatives are to be evaluated are ordered from most important to least important –Any alternative that does not satisfy the most important factor is automatically eliminated –The process of elimination continues as each factor is considered in order –The alternative that survives is the one chosen

21 High-Tech Applications Artificial intelligence –Computer systems that simulate human thinking in solving problems and in making judgments and decisions –Expert systems Computer programs designed to carry out highly specific functions within a limited domain MYCIN: medical expert system Outside its area of expertise, an expert system cannot function

22 High-Tech Applications Artificial neural networks –Computer systems that are intended to mimic the human brain –Using neural networks, psychologists can also learn more about how the brain works Robotics –The science of automating human and animal functions

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