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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 1 Chapter 8 THINKING AND LANGUAGE Section 1: What Is Thinking?What Is Thinking? Section 2: Problem SolvingProblem Solving Section 3: ReasoningReasoning Section 4: Decision Making and JudgmentDecision Making and Judgment Section 5: LanguageLanguage

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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 2 Chapter 8 Thinking is…… 1. thinking is the mental activity that is involved in the understanding, processing, and communicating of information. Made possible through the use of symbols, concepts, and prototypes.

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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 3 Chapter 8 Question: What are the three units of thought? THREE UNITS OF THOUGHT SYMBOLS – objects or acts that stand for something else CONCEPTS – mentally grouping together objects, events, or ideas that have similar characteristics such as dogs, horses, etc. PROTOTYPES – examples of concepts that best exemplify that concept Section 1: What Is Thinking?

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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 4 Chapter 8 How do we solve problems? 2. algorithms: a specific procedure that, when used properly and in the right circumstances, will always lead to the solution of a problem. Ex: formulas. 3. heuristics: rules of thumb that often, but not always, help us find the solution to a problem. They are shortcuts. Ex: C_ _ FF (cliff)

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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 5 Chapter 8 4. incubation effect: When we arrive at the solution to a problem when we have not been consciously working on the problem. Ex: taking a break from math problem then suddenly coming up with the solution. 5. mental set: the tendency to respond to a new problem with an approach that was successfully used with similar problems. Can sometimes solve a problem, can sometimes cause a problem. 6. functional fixedness: is the tendency to think of an object as being useful only for the function that the object is usually used for.

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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 6 Chapter 8 7. convergent thinking: thought is limited to available facts, one tries to narrow thinking to find the single best solution. 8. divergent thinking: one associates more freely to the various elements of a problem. One follows leads that run in various directions; perhaps one that will lead to the solution unexpectedly.

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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 7 Chapter 8 Question: What steps can be used to solve problems? THE ABCDEs OF PROBLEM SOLVING A ssess the problem B rainstorm approaches to the problem C hoose the approach that seems most likely to work D o it – try the most likely approach E valuate the results Section 2: Problem Solving

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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 8 Chapter 8 Question: How do deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning differ? DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REASONING DIFFER 9. Deductive Reasoning – a conclusion is arrived at by reasoning from a general principle to a specific conclusion 10. Inductive Reasoning – a conclusion is arrived at by reasoning from many specific observations to a general principle 11. confirmation bias: tendency to prove, or confirm, one’s hypothesis rather than disprove it. Section 3: Reasoning

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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 9 Chapter 8 Question: What strategies can be made in decision making? STRATEGIES IN DECISION MAKING Weighing the Pluses and Minuses – choosing among goals or courses of action to reach goals by using a balance sheet Shortcuts in Decision Making and Judgment – use heuristics or shortcuts The Framing Effect – refers to a way in which wording affects decision making Section 4: Decision Making and Judgment

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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 10 Chapter 8 Question: What strategies can be made in decision making? HEURISTICS OR SHORTCUTS Representativeness Heuristic – making decisions about a sample according to the population that the sample appears to represent Availability Heuristic – making a decision on the basis of information that is available in the immediate consciousness Anchoring Heuristic – making a decision based on certain ideas or standards that a person holds and which hold an anchor for the person Section 4: Decision Making and Judgment

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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 11 Chapter 8 Question: What are the basic elements of language? BASIC ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE Phonemes – basic sounds of a language Morphemes – units of meaning in language Syntax – way in which words are arranged to make phrases and sentences Section 5: Language

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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 12 Chapter 8 Question: What are the three units of thought? Thinking Symbols Concepts Prototypes

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