Impressionism (c. 1875-85) –Rodin (1840-1917) first sculptor of genius since Bernini aim: to create “new classics” poses & themes: derived from Greek Hellenism method: building up of forms rather than chiseling away surface texture: contrast between unfinished, rough areas vs. polished finish
Sculpture: Modern Pre-World War I (c. 1905-10) –Brancusi first successful alternative to Rodin aim: search for “essence” of nature, rather than literal and objective depiction technique: “genius of omission” style: –cubic –formal simplicity
Sculpture: Modern Italian Futurism (c. 1915) –Boccioni aim: –to portray speed & dynamism of contemporary life –to make objects live by showing their extensions in space process: “systematization of the interpenetration of planes” »force-lines »arabesque curves
Sculpture: Modern Surrealism (cont.) –Calder (1898-1976) “mobiles” –delicately balanced constructions of metal wire –hinged together & weighted to move through air influence of Miró & Surrealism –borrowed biomorphic shapes –similar color scheme (black/white + primaries)
Sculpture: Modern Post-World War II (c. 1950) –Giacometti (1901-66) theme: Existential anxiety –idea of extinction –paradoxical power of emaciated human form figures: –anti-Classical proportions –yet recall rigid, standing figures of ancient Egypt
Exercises How did Rodin work within the Classical tradition? How did he break with accepted norms of “finish”? T/F: Brancusi’s sculpture employs a great use of negative space. What two (2) elements did Boccioni use to create an “interpenetration” of planes? T/F: Henry Moore’s biomorphic sculptures are characterized by a use of negative space. What was innovative about Calder’s Surrealist “mobile” sculptures? T/F: The anti-Classical proportions in Giacometti’s sculpture correspond to the theme of existential anxiety.
IMAGE INDEX Slide 3:RODIN, Auguste. The Thinker (1879-89), bronze, height 27 1/2”, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Slide 4:Comparison between RODIN’s The Thinker and (Greek) Hellenistic style Tiber Muse (c. 200 BC). Slide 5:Comparison between RODIN’s The Thinker and (Greek) Hellenistic style Seated Boxer (c. 50 BC), Bronze, approx. 50” high, Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome.
IMAGE INDEX Slide 6:RODIN, Auguste. The Old Courtesan (1885), Bronze, 20 1/8 x 9 7/8 x 11 3/4 in., Musee Rodin, Paris. Slide 7:Comparison between RODIN’s The Old Courtesan and Hellenistic Old Market Woman (c. 2nd century BC), marble, 49 1/2”, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Slide 8:RODIN, Auguste. The Kiss (1886), Bronze, 87 x 51 x 55 cm., Musee Rodin, Paris.
IMAGE INDEX Slide 9:Comparison between RODIN’s The Kiss and (Greek) Hellenistic Eros and Psyche (c. 150 BC), marble, 49” high, Museo Capitolino, Rome. Slide 11:BRANCUSI, Constantin. The Kiss (1907), Stone, 11 in., Muzuel de Arta, Craiova, Romania. Slide 12:Comparison between BRANCUSI, Constantin. The Kiss (1907) and RODIN’s The Kiss (1886).
IMAGE INDEX Slide 14:BOCCIONI, Umberto. Unique Form of Continuity in Space (1913), Bronze, 126.4 x 89 x 40.6 cm, Private collection, Rome. Slide 15:Comparison between BOCCIONI’s Unique Form of Continuity in Space (1913) and (Greek) Hellenistic Nike of Samothrace (c. 200 BC). Slide 17:MOORE, Henry. Recumbant Figure (1938), stone, length approx. 54”, Tate Gallery, London.
IMAGE INDEX Slide 18:Comparison between MOORE’s Recumbant Figure (1938) and Classical Greek Three Goddesses (c. 450 BC), from the east pediment of the Parthenon. Slide 20:CALDER, Alexander. Lobster Trap and Fish Tail (1939), painted steel wire and sheet aluminum, approx. 8’6” x 9’6”, The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York. Slide 21:Comparison between CALDER’s Lobster Trap and Fish Tail (1939) and MIRO’s Carnival of Harlequin (c. 1925).
IMAGE INDEX Slide 23:GIACOMETTI, Alberto. Tall Figure (c. 1950), Painted bronze. Slide 24:Comparison between ancient Egyptian Priest (c. 1800 BC) and GIACOMETTI’s Tall Figure (c. 1950).