2Outline What skills will our children need for their future? What are thinking skills?School-friendly Thinker’s KeysEdward de Bono’s Six HatsBloom’s Revised TaxonomyGraphic Organisers
3A good teacher makes you think even when you don’t want to. (Fisher, 1998, Teaching Thinking)
4The students of the future should be able to: Solve problemsThink creativelyThink criticallyMake decisionsGenerate new ideasAnalyse informationPlan for the future
5What is thinking? Thinking is a mental process. Thinking skills are the intellectual skills such as the skills of memorizing and recalling facts and information, clarifying, making analysis, generating ideas, making decisions, problem solving, and planning.Different authors of thinking skills have proposed different models and approaches in teaching thinking skills.
6Critical thinkingCritical thinking refers to reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do. Critical thinkers try to be aware of their own biases, to be objective and logical.
7Creative thinkingCreative Thinking refers to the ability to form new combinations of ideas to fulfil a need, or to get original or otherwise appropriate results by the criteria of the domain in question.
8MetacognitionMetacognition refers to awareness and control of one's thinking, including commitment, attitudes and attention. Simply it is the ability to think about one’s own thinking.
9What does the Thinking Classroom look like? There are significant opportunities for higher-level thinking, complex problem solving and/or open-ended response. Thinking skills are explicitly taught in an authentic and meaningful context.
10Convergent and Divergent Thinking In convergent thinking, the thinking skills are focused on a particular thing, problem, or issue. For example: "The tyre had a nail and some scratches. What caused the tyre to puncture?" Here, we are looking for evidence about what caused the tyre to punctureIn divergent thinking, we want to generate many, varied and new ideas. For example; "What are the use of old tyres?"
11School Friendly Thinker’s Keys Question KeyPicture KeyReverse Listing KeyConstruction KeyInterpretation KeyDifferent Uses KeyWhat If ? Key(developed by Tony Ryan)
12Benefits of Thinker’s Keys Easy to use and explainFamiliar object- “unlocking thinking”Encourage children (and adults) to:Look at things differentlyThink divergentlyThink creativelyBrainstorm ideasListen to others’ ideasShare their ideasBe organised
13Question KeyStart with an answer and list questions that give that answer.Eg. Think of questions to give the answer:MidnightSeaweedChristmasKoalas.ClownsButterflies
14Picture KeyDraw a simple diagram or squiggle and students work out ways to link it (by finishing the picture) to a specific:topicthemebookcelebration, etc.(N.B. Variation on Ryan’s original Picture Key)
15Reverse Listing KeyPlace words such as cannot, would not, never or not in a sentence.Eg. Name 10 things that you could not clean.List 10 things that can not growName 10 things you couldn’t put on a sandwichName 10 items you wouldn’t find in a houseList 10 things you would not see at the circus
16Construction KeySet up a wide variety of construction problem-solving tasks and use lots of readily available material.Eg. Build the highest possible self- supporting structure using one sheet of newspaper, sticky tape and a pair of scissors.Eg. Use the material supplied to:Build a trap for the Big Bad WolfBuild a tower for Princess FionaBuild a house for ShrekBuild a bridge to hold a preschool truck
17Interpretation KeyDescribe an unusual situation and then think of some different explanations for the existence of that situation.Eg. The butterfly is laughing. Give 3 reasons to explain why.The clown is cryingThe ant is as big as an elephantThe monster is laughingThe monkey is eating potato chips
18Different Uses KeyList some different uses for items from your topic (emphasis on reusing and recycling).Eg. Find 10 uses for:An old clown noseAn empty yoghurt containerAn old work bookA broken televisionMum’s old toothbrushRed Riding Hood’s basket
19What If? KeyYou can ask virtually any What If question. You can use the ideas wheel to record student responses.Eg. What If:all cars turned into skateboards?chocolate was good for you?mice were as big as elephants?money did grow on trees?
21Six Hats Developed by Edward de Bono (1980s) Framework for thinking Easy to useVisual and tactileInvolves a variety of thinkingAllows students to separate their thinkingCan be used by individuals, small groups or whole class
22The purpose behind the use of this tool is to help students to learn to reflect on their thinking and to recognise that different thinking is required in different learning situations.
23So what are the Six Thinking Hats? Red: Emotions and feelingsYellow: Good points and benefitsBlack: Problems and cautionWhite: Thinking about facts and informationGreen: Creative and new ideasBlue: Thinking about thinking
32Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives1950s- developed by Benjamin BloomMeans of expressing qualitatively different kinds of thinkingBeen adapted for classroom use as a planning toolContinues to be one of the most universally applied modelsProvides a way to organise thinking skills into six levels,from the most basic to the more complex levels of thinking1990s- Lorin Anderson (former student of Bloom) revisited the taxonomyAs a result, a number of changes were made(Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn)
34Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy CreatingGenerating new ideas, products or ways of viewing thingsDesigning, constructing, planning, producing, inventingEvaluatingJustifying a decision or course of actionChecking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judgingAnalysingBreaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationshipsComparing, organising, deconstructing, findingApplyingUsing information in another familiar situation.Implementing, carrying out, using, executingUnderstandingExplaining ideas or conceptsInterpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explainingRememberingRecalling informationRecognising, listing, describing, naming, finding
35Lower-order and Higher-order Thinking Skills The skills of memorizing and recalling facts or information are the lower order thinking skills as they do not require wide and deep thinking.Thinking skills such as clarifying, making analysis, generating ideas, making decisions, problem-solving and planning which require wider and deeper thinking are the higher-order thinking skills.
36“He who learns but does not think is lost.” (Chinese Proverb)
38Thinking Skills in the Classroom We have a variety of thinking strategies and approaches to draw from:· DeBono’s Six Hats· Tony Ryan’s Thinker’s Keys· Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences· Graphic Organisers· Bloom’s Taxonomy/ Revised Taxonomy(Just to name a few)
39These Strategies Can Be Incorporated Into Planning Through: · Contract activities· Learning centres/ rotational activities· Enrichment/ extension tasks· Small group activities· Whole class activities· Diary/ journal writing· Homework· Reading programAcross all KLA’s all the time
40Thinking Skills in a Student Reading Program Understanding and comprehension are essential to a student’s success with reading (i.e. Interpreting, summarising, comparing, explaining).BUT higher-order thinking should also play a part.
41“Discovery consists of seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought.” (Albert van Szent- Gyorgyi)
42Planning DocumentsCater for student’s individual learning styles and multiple intelligences.Encourage students to construct knowledge for themselves, participate in higher-order thinking and facilitate divergent thinking.Documents should be simple and include a variety of strategies and approaches.
43“Smarts” in the Classroom A multiple intelligence approach is one way we can drive higher-order thinking in the classroom.Junior E’s Monster Smarts is an example of a multiple intelligence approach to program planning where children have used thinking skills to design, create, interpret and evaluate.Monster Smarts
47Investigate a book the Blooming Smarts Way You could use this matrix in your Reading Program. It lists a number of tasks for students to complete.They are generic activities organised across all smarts and catering for all levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy that students can select from.
50Graphic OrganisersGraphic organizers are visual representations of knowledge, concepts or ideas. They are known to help:* relieve learner boredom* enhances recall* provide motivation* create interest* clarify information* assist in organizing thoughts* promote understanding
65showcasing photos for uploading to wikis etc. include musicCan have an education accountMovies connecting children’s learning to real life situationsCyber safety also “Hectors World”ideastoinspire.co.ukClever ideas to access and download