2So, what are the complexities? A closer look…So, what are the complexities?So, what are the complexities?
3The wheel of culture. An interdisciplinary analysis Disciplines involvedCultural anthropologyBehavioral psychologySociologyOrganization behaviorCommunicationaesthetics
4“Understanding the complexity of culture: The role of leaders and followers.”
5Basic function of Leadership “The function of leadership is to produce more leaders, not more followers.”Ralph Nader
6“A platoon leader doesn’t get his platoon to go by getting up and shouting and saying “I am smarter. I am bigger. I am stronger. I am the leader.” He gets men to go along with him because they want to do it for him and they believe in him.”Dwight D. Eisenhower
7LEADERSHIP ACTIONS“All over this country, corporations and government agencies, there are millions of executives who imagine that their place on the organizational chart has given them a body of followers. And of course it hasn’t. It has given them subordinates. Whether subordinates become followers depends on whether the executives act like leaders.”John Gardner
9Critical and Uncritical Thinking Thinking independently and being mindful of the effects of one’s own and other people’s behavior on achieving the organization’s vision.Uncritical ThinkingFailing to consider possibilities beyond what one is told; accepting the leader’s ideas without thinking.
10Passive or Active Behavior Passive BehaviorUninvolvedNeeds constant supervisionAvoids responsibilityActive BehaviorFully engagedDemonstrates a sense of ownershipProblem solverInvolved in decision making
11Kelley’s 5 Powers of Followership AlienatedPassive, yet independentCritical, independent thinkersFocus on shortcomings of organization and leadersConformistParticipates actively but does not use critical thinking skillsParticipates willingly without thought to consequencesAvoids conflict
12Kelley’s Power of Followership Passive FollowerIs not a critical or independent thinkerIs not active in participationDo what they are told to doEffective FollowerIndependent and critical thinkerActive in the organizationDoes not avoid risk or conflictActs willinglyCapable of self-management
13Kelley’s Power of Followership Pragmatic survivorHas qualities of all four extremesUses what benefits his/her positionPoliticalAvoids Risk
14Demands on an Effective Follower Have to be willing to express their ideas and what they stand forCourage to assume responsibilityCourage to serveCourage to challengeCourage to participate in transformationCourage to leave
15Meilinger’s Ten Rules of Followership 1. Don’t blame your boss for an unpopular decision or policy; your job is to support, not undermine.2. Fight with your boss if necessary; but do it in private, avoid embarrassing situations, and never reveal to others what was discussed.3. Make the decision, then run it past the boss; use your initiative.4. Accept responsibility whenever it is offered.5. Tell the truth and don’t quibble; your boss will be givingadvice up the chain of command based on what you said.6. Do your homework; give your boss all the information needed to make a decision; anticipate possible questions.
16Meilinger’s Ten Rules of Followership 7. When making a recommendation, remember who will probably have to implement it. This means you must know your own limitations and weaknesses as well as your strengths.8. Keep your boss informed of what’s going on in theunit; people will be reluctant to tell him or her their problems and successes. You should do it for them, and assume someone else will tell the boss about yours.9. If you see a problem, fix it. Don’t worry about who would have gotten the blame or who now gets the praise.10. Put in more than an honest day’s work, but don’t everforget the needs of your family. If they are unhappy, you will be too, and your job performance will suffer accordingly.
17Ex. 7.2 The Maturity Continuum Sharpen the SawInterdependence56Seek First to Understand Then to be UnderstoodSynergizePUBLIC VICTORYThink win-win4IndependencePut First Things First3PRIVATE VICTORYBegin with the End in MindBe Proactive12Dependence
18Sources of Follower Power Personal SourcesKnowledgeExpertiseEffortPersuasionPosition SourcesLocationInformationAccess
19Ex. 7.3 Ways to Influence Your Leader Be a Resource for the LeaderDetermine the leader’s needs.Zig where the leader zags.Tell leader about you.Align self to team purpose/vision.Help the Leader Be a Good LeaderAsk for advice.Tell leader what you think.Find things to thank leader for.Build a RelationshipAsk about leader at your level/position.Welcome feedback and criticism.Ask leader to tell you company stories.View the Leader RealisticallyGive up idealized leader images.Don’t hide anything.Don’t criticize leader to others.Disagree occasionally.
20Ex. 7.4 Rank Order of Desirable Characteristics Desirable Leaders AreHonestForward thinkingInspiringCompetentDesirable Colleagues (Followers) AreHonestCooperativeDependableCompetent
21Optimizing Feedback Make regular feedback a habit Use elements of storytellingBeing generous with positive feedbackTrain followers to view feedback as an opportunity for development
22DialogueA type of communication in which each person suspends his attachment to a particular viewpoint so that a deeper level of listening, synthesis, and meaning evolves from the whole community
23Leading Others to Lead Themselves Strive toward collaborative relationshipsSelf-management leadershipShare power and responsibilityCoach and mentorOffer encouragementRemove barriersProvide constructive feedbackEmpower followers
24Communities of Practice Made up of individuals who are informally bound to one another through exposure to a similar set of problems and a common pursuit of solutions
256 Practices of Communities Building proper Foundation of teamInclusivityPositive cultureConversationCaring and TrustShared Leadership