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November 10, 2008 What were the political, economic, and military benefits of the Panama Canal? –Roosevelt’s Peace –The Canal –Diplomacy Homework: Outline.

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Presentation on theme: "November 10, 2008 What were the political, economic, and military benefits of the Panama Canal? –Roosevelt’s Peace –The Canal –Diplomacy Homework: Outline."— Presentation transcript:

1 November 10, 2008 What were the political, economic, and military benefits of the Panama Canal? –Roosevelt’s Peace –The Canal –Diplomacy Homework: Outline

2 Russo-Japanese War 1904 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia declared war on Japan Both imperialist powers competing for control of Korea

3 Japanese surprise attacked Russian Pacific fleet and destroyed it Japan then destroyed second fleet sent as reinforcement Japan won a series of land battles, securing Korea and Manchuria As result, Japan began running out of men and money

4 Japanese officials approached Roosevelt in secret and asked him to mediate peace negotiations

5 He agreed and in 1905, Russian and Japanese delegates convened at Portsmouth, New Hampshire The first meeting took place in the President’s yacht

6 Japanese wanted Sakhalin Island and a large sum of money from Russia Russia refused Roosevelt persuaded Japan to accept half of the island and forgo the cash payment Russia agreed to let Japan take over Russian interests in Manchuria and Korea

7 The successful efforts in negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth won Roosevelt the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize

8 As US and Japanese interest expanded in East Asia, the two nations continued diplomatic talks In later agreements, they pledged to respect each other’s possessions and interest in East Asia and the Pacific

9 Roosevelt’s Plan for U.S. Remember how he became President? Believed in building up navy and felt that connecting the oceans was next step Agreed with Mahan that the canal would “become a strategic center of the most vital importance”

10 Why build a Canal? Many Americans felt that the US needed a canal cutting across Central America It would greatly reduce travel time for commercial and military ships by providing a short cut between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

11 Two Possible Routes Nicaragua which fewer obstacles because it crossed a large lake

12 Panama (then province of Columbia) and was shorter and filled with mountains and swamps

13 Isthmus gained importance after Gold Rush in California and the trans-Panama Railroad was built Strong rivalry with Great Britian Britain and US agreed to share benefits of the canal

14 After the Spanish-American War ( ) The U.S. had built an empire in the Carribbean

15 The U.S. Wins Canal Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of Britain gave the US exclusive rights to build and control a canal through Central America

16 France’s Attempt Late 1800’s, a French Company began building the canal across Panama under Ferdinand de Lesseps

17 Work began 1881 Faced poor planning, disease, construction troubles, and inadequate financing drove company into bankruptcy in 1889 The French transfer rights and assets to a new company

18 Meanwhile: U.S. Congress was favoring the Nicaragua route French sent Philippe Bunau-Varilla, to Washington to convince the US to buy its claim (in Panama) In 1903, the president & Congress decided to use the Panama route and agreed to buy the French company’s route for $40 million

19 Before building the Panama Canal, the US had to get permission from Colombia, which ruled Panama

20 PROBLEM Colombians refused to sign the Treaty of Hay-Herran which would have given U.S. a strip of land across Isthmus of Panama in return for $10 million dollars and an annuity of $250,000

21 When negotiations broke down, Bunau-Varilla helped organize a Panamanian rebellion against Columbia November 3, 1903, nearly half dozen US warships were present as Panama declared its independence

22 15 days later, Panama and the US signed a treaty in which the U.S. agreed to pay Panama $10 million plus an annual rent of $250,000 for an area of land across Panama, called the Canal Zone payments were to begin 1913

23 Construction of the Canal One of the world’s greatest engineering feats Construction of a lock canal was decided in 1906

24 What is the Lock System?

25 work began 1904 clearing of brush and draining of swamps builders fought diseases, such as yellow fever and malaria, and soft volcanic soil that proved difficult to remove from where it lay

26 by 1913, the height of the construction, more than 43,400 workers were employed

27 Cost of the Canal More than 5,000 workers on the canal died from accidents or disease It cost the US $380 million dollars

28 August 15, 1914, the canal opened for business, an more than 1,000 merchant ships passed through during its first year

29

30 What is the Panama Canal? Waterway across the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

31 U.S. and Latin America Financial factors drew US into Latin American affairs –They borrowed from European banks Roosevelt feared that if these nations defaulted on their loans, European nations would intervene

32 He was determined to make US predominant power in the Caribbean and Central America

33 Roosevelt based his Latin America policy on a West African proverb that said, “Speak softly and carry a big stick”

34 Roosevelt Corollary in 1904 Added to the Monroe Doctrine U.S. may use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America “international police power”

35 Involvement in Latin American Affairs 1911 – Nicaragua has rebellion that leaves the nation near bankruptcy Taft arranged for bankers to loan money in exchange for control of Nicaragua’s railraod and its national bank

36  People revolt against their president, Adolfo Diaz because of this

37 2,000 marines were sent to Nicaragua Revolt was put down, but marines remained in the country until 1933

38 Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy The Taft administration followed the policy of using the U.S. government to guarantee loans made to foreign countries by American businesspeople The policy was called Dollar diplomacy by critics and was often used to justify keeping European powers out of Caribbean

39 Wilson’s Missionary Diplomacy Moral responsibility to deny recognition of Latin America viewed as oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to US interest Before, US recognized any government that controlled a nation  Pressured nations in Western Hemisphere to establish democratic governments

40 Mexican Revolution Porfirio DiazPorfirio Diaz Dictator for 3 decades Encouraged foreign investments

41 As a result, foreigners owned large share of Mexican oil wells, mines, railroads, and ranches Foreign investors, some Mexican landowners, and politicians had grown rich, the common people of the country were poor.

42 Francisco MaderoFrancisco Madero 1911 – he and followers overthrow Diaz promised democratic reforms

43 General Victoriano HuertaGeneral Victoriano Huerta Took over after 2 years of Madero’s rule Wilson refused to recognize his government

44 Intervention in Mexico “watchful waiting” April Huerta’s officers arrested a small group of American sailors Mexicans quickly released them and apologized but Wilson used the incident as excuse to send marines to occupy Veracruz

45 18 Americans and at least 200 Mexicans died during the invasion and it brought the US and Mexico close to war

46 Others stepped in to mediate the conflict They proposed that Huerta step down and that US troops withdraw without paying Mexico for damages Mexico rejected the plan, and Wilson refused to recognize a government that had come to power as a result of violence

47 Huerta regime collapsed and Venustiano Carranza, a nationalist leader, became president in 1915 Wilson withdrew the troops and formally recognized the Carranza government

48 Emiliano ZapataEmiliano Zapata “it is better to die on your feet than live on your knees”

49 Villa’s followers raided Columbia, New Mexico, and killed 17 Americans Americans demanding revenge, Wilson ordered Brigadier General John J. Pershing and a force of about 15,000 soldiers into Mexico to capture Villa dead or alive

50 Rebellion in Mexico Francisco “Pancho” VillaFrancisco “Pancho” Villa

51 As Wilson sends national guardsmen, Mexicans become angry about “US Invasion”  In June 1916, US troops clashed with Carranza’s army, resulting in deaths on both sides As neither back down, war seems imminent

52 The US facing war in Europe needed peach on it southern border In February 1917, Wilson ordered Pershing to return home Later, Mexico adopted a constitution that gave the government control of the nation’s oil and mineral resources and placed strict regulations on foreign investors

53 U.S. intervention in Mexican affairs provided a clear model of American imperialist attitudes in the early years of the 20th century Americans believed in the superiority of free- enterprise democracy, and the American government attempted to extend the reach of this economic and political system, even through armed intervention

54 Exit Slips: On a separate sheet of paper. Write down how the Panama Canal benefited the U.S. economically, politically, and militarily.


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