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C0C0 C granular media flow Time C/C 0 No dispersion Effect of dispersion With retardation column Contaminant Movement in Ground Water Model system porous.

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Presentation on theme: "C0C0 C granular media flow Time C/C 0 No dispersion Effect of dispersion With retardation column Contaminant Movement in Ground Water Model system porous."— Presentation transcript:

1 C0C0 C granular media flow Time C/C 0 No dispersion Effect of dispersion With retardation column Contaminant Movement in Ground Water Model system porous plate

2 groundwater flow direction Lines of equal contaminant concentration Plan View Vertical Section View Point Source of Contaminant Contaminant plume

3 NAPLs: DNAPLs-Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids LNAPLs-Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids

4 Subsurface NAPL Free-Phase (Mobile) Residual (Trapped)

5 NAPLs:

6 Wastewater Collection Systems

7 Outline Quantity & Characteristics of Wastewater Combined Sewer Overflows Sewer Basics Sewage Pump Stations Alternative Collection Systems

8 How much wastewater do we produce each day? Wastewater Characteristics These values are rough estimates only and vary greatly by locale.

9 Other Contributions to Wastewater Flows Infiltration –Older sewer pipe did not have water-tight joints –Sewers follow topography, which means many follow stream-beds or drainage swales where groundwater is high –Since sewers are not under pressure, groundwater can enter in through joints (as well as sewage leak out if ground water is lower than pipe)

10 Other Contributions to Wastewater Flows Infiltration rates vary by depth of groundwater, type of pipe joint, and pipe diameter Infiltration can range from 1,000 gal/day/mile to 100,000 gal/day/mile

11 How do we quantify water pollution? BOD - Biochemical Oxygen Demand COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand DO - Dissolved Oxygen Levels TKN - Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Pathogen Levels (Coliforms) NO 3 -N - Nitrate nitrogen Suspended Solids Aquatic Organisms or lack of (algae, fish, etc.) Heavy Metals Toxicity Wastewater Characteristics

12 Dissolved Oxygen Dissolved Oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen dissolved in a liquid. It can be added to a liquid by aeration or from the natural gas transfer between the air (containing oxygen) and the liquid surface. The amount of DO in a liquid is dependent on the liquid temperature and the salinity. The maximum amount of DO that can be present in a liquid is called the saturated dissolved oxygen level. The DO is used by aquatic organisms. If there is no DO present, the water is considered to be anaerobic. Wastewater Characteristics

13 Biochemical Oxygen Demand BOD - used to quantify the amount of oxygen used by microorganisms to oxidize dissolved organic and inorganic constituents in a water. BOD 5 - the amount of oxygen consumed (in mg/L) over a 5 day period at 20 o C (in the dark). BOD 5 is a measure of the bioavailability over a 5 day period under controlled conditions. BOD u - the maximum amount of oxygen usage by microorganisms over a long period of time. A good measure of maximum bioavailability. Wastewater Characteristics

14 Biochemical Oxygen Demand Wastewater Characteristics Ref: Davis, Cornwell, 1998, Introduction to Environmental Engineering

15 Biochemical Oxygen Demand Wastewater Characteristics Compound BOD 5, mg/L Domestic Wastewater~ 200 Whole Milk102,500 Skim Milk 73,000 Coke 67,400 Pepsi 79,500 Tom Collins 66,600 Ethylene glycol400,000

16 Biochemical Oxygen Demand Carbonaceous BOD (CBOD) - used to quantify the amount of oxygen used by microorganisms to oxidize dissolved organic constituents in a water. Nitrogenous BOD (NBOD) - the amount of oxygen used by microorganisms to oxidize dissolved nitrogen in a water. Wastewater Characteristics

17 Biochemical Oxygen Demand Wastewater Characteristics Ref: Metcalf & Eddy, 1991, Wastewater Engineering Treatment, Disposal and Reuse

18 Nitrogen in Wastewater Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) - is the sum of organic nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen. Expressed as mg/L as Nitrogen Organic Nitrogen - nitrogen that is complexed with organic constituents (cell tissue, amino acids, proteins, plant tissue, etc.) Ammonia Nitrogen - nitrogen that is in the form of ammonia. Expressed as mg/L NH 3 -N Nitrite (NO 2 ) nitrogen can be measured directly and is typically expressed as mg/L as NO 2 -N Nitrate (NO 3 ) nitrogen can be measured directly and is typically expressed as mg/L as NO 3 -N Wastewater Characteristics

19 Nitrogen in Wastewater Under aerobic (presence of oxygen), TKN will oxidize to nitrite (NO 2 ) and nitrate (NO 3 ). The oxidation of TKN to nitrate is called nitrification. The reduction of oxidized nitrogen to nitrogen gas (N 2 ) is called denitrification. Denitrification can occur under anaerobic (void of oxygen) conditions. Wastewater Characteristics

20 Other Oxygen Demands Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is a measured quantity of oxygen needed to completely oxidize organic and inorganic substances that are present in a water. The COD will oxidize organics/inorganics that would not normally oxidize under natural conditions. The COD is not a measure of the bioavailability or biological activity in a wastewater. COD >> BOD u  BOD 5 Theoretical Oxygen Demand (ThOD) is the theoretical amount of oxygen needed to completely oxidize a substance. Wastewater Characteristics

21 Solids in Wastewater Total Suspended Solids (TSS) is a measure of the mass of solids that are larger than ~ 1µm in a liquid Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) is a measure of the mass of TSS that can be burned at 550 o C. It is a good measure of biological mass in a water. Fixed Suspended Solids (FSS) is a measure of the mass of TSS that is “inert”. FSS = TSS-VSS Wastewater Characteristics

22 Other Wastewater Constituents of Concern Phosphorus is a vital nutrient for aquatic plants such as algae. Too much phosphorus may lead to substantial growth of algae in receiving streams and lakes. Aquatic plants get their carbon from CO 2 and HCO 3 and their energy from sunlight. Heavy Metals: Zinc, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and etc. that are extremely toxic to aquatic life. Others: pesticides, herbicides, chlorine, and ammonia can be toxic to aquatic life in the receiving stream. Volatile organic compounds enter atmosphere during aeration. Wastewater Characteristics

23 Ref: Reynolds, 1996, Unit Operations and Processes in Env. Engineering

24 Older Systems Have/Had Combined Sewers Sanitary sewer also collects storm water runoff Quantity is highly variable and site specific CSO: Combined Sewer Overflow –Wastewater flows greatly increase during a storm –If capacity of sewer or treatment systems are exceeded, some of the combined waste is discharged with minimal to no treatment

25 CSOs

26 Reducing CSOs Install separate storm and sanitary sewers –Standard for all new construction –Very expensive for existing systems Build pipes and treatment plants large enough to handle all flows –Very, very expensive – not feasible Store combined sewage, then pump to treatment plant when storm ends and flows are back to normal –This option has been selected by many cities, including Seattle and King County

27 Milwaukee Deep Tunnels can store over 400 million gallons of combined flows Wastewater is pumped to treatment plant when flows subside (no storm) Seattle’s CSO Projects include tunnels and pump stations

28 CSO Locations- King County

29 Most Sewers Rely on Gravity Flow Most sewers are designed to flow by gravity (water flows down-hill) –Includes sewer pipe from home to septic tank or to a municipal collector pipe –Gravity sewers must follow the topography of the land –Where gravity flow is not possible, pumps are used Individual unit pump Large municipal lift (pump) station

30 Hydraulics of Sewers Most sewers designed to flow at a velocity of 2.0 ft/sec when flowing half-full –Do not want pipe to flow full at peak flows –Do not want pipe flow velocity too low—can’t transport solids Most designs are complex, but use basic hydraulic equations for computing necessary size and slope

31 Manning Equation for Pipe Flow Manning Equation V = velocity (ft/sec) n = coefficient of roughness (dependent upon pipe material/condition) R = hydraulic radius = area/wetted perimeter (ft) S = hydraulic slope (assumed to be slope of pipe) (ft/ft)

32 Basic Sewer Design Collector pipes (pipe in street) is minimum 8 inches diameter (to allow cleaning) Service pipes (home or building to collector is 4 to 6 inches diameter Gravity sewer pipes have no bends, manholes used to make transitions in direction and pipe size Pipe sections between manholes are at a constant grade or slope (S)

33 Typical Manhole Fig 5.1, p 134

34 House or Building Service Connection

35 Pump Stations Pump (lift) sewage from low to higher elevation, generally from end of one gravity sewer section to another, higher section Consist of a wet well and pumps Wet well forms a place for wastewater to collect and be pumped from

36 Source: Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. Wastewater Engineering: Collection, Treatment and Disposal. McGraw-Hill:New York, Large Pump Station

37 Small Pump Station

38 Alternative Collection Systems Applications –Small community with failing septic systems –New, small developments –Areas where gravity sewers are not feasible Homes along edge of lake Areas with unstable soil Areas with flat terrain Rolling land with many small elevation changes High water table Restricted construction conditions Rock Urban development in rural areas Types of Alternative Systems –Pressure sewers –Vacuum sewers –Small diameter gravity sewers

39 Pressure Sewers Each home/building has individual pump Wastewater pumped to a central treatment location Pumps “grind” sewage solids

40 Pressure Systems Can Pump Wastewater Treated by Septic Tank – Used for Homes Previously on Septic Systems

41 Vacuum Sewers Wastewater flows by gravity to a central collector well (up to four homes per well) When well fills a vacuum lines pulls wastewater to a central vacuum tank Wastewater pumped from central vacuum tank to treatment or a gravity sewer

42 Typical Vacuum Sewer Layout

43 Vacuum System Components Could also come from existing septic tank

44 Small Diameter Gravity Sewer Systems Wastewater flows from home to interceptor (septic) tank where settleable solids and grease are removed Wastewater flows by gravity to central collector pipe Central collector pipe can flow full in certain areas Pipe sizes are typically 4 and 6-inch diameter

45 Small Diameter Sewer Layout Pipe will flow full, under pressure in these areas

46 Interceptor Tank (same as Septic Tank)

47 Carnation Treatment System Vacuum collection system Treated wastewater discharged to: 1) Uplands (infiltration to groundwater) 2) River discharge 3) Reuse (irrigation) 4) Wetland enhancement/treatment


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