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Dr. Alaadin A. Bukhari Centre for Environment and Water Research Institute KFUPM Tertiary Treatment of Domestic Wastewater By.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Alaadin A. Bukhari Centre for Environment and Water Research Institute KFUPM Tertiary Treatment of Domestic Wastewater By."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Alaadin A. Bukhari Centre for Environment and Water Research Institute KFUPM Tertiary Treatment of Domestic Wastewater By

2 PRESENTATION LAYOUT Introduction Tertiary Treatment Technologies Removal of Residual Constituents –Suspended Solids Removal –Nutrients Removal –Removal of Toxic Compounds –Removal of Dissolved Inorganic Compounds Tertiary Treatment of Wastewater in Saudi Arabia Summary

3 Definition Further removal of suspended and dissolved contaminants, not normally removed by conventional treatment INTRODUCTION

4 Need of Tertiary Treatment of Wastewater: –Continued increase in population –Limited water resources –Contamination of both surface and groundwater –Uneven distribution of water resources and –periodic draughts

5 Typical Constituents Present in Wastewater: –Suspended solids –Biodegradable organics compounds –Volatile organic compounds –Toxic contaminants –Nutrients –Other organics and inorganics

6 Options for reuse of treated wastewater

7 TERTIARY TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES Classification of Technologies Primary Treatment Systems Secondary Treatment Systems Tertiary Treatment Systems


9 Factors affecting the selection of treatment processes: –The potential use of the treated effluent –The nature of the wastewater –The compatibility of the various operations and processes –The available means to dispose of the ultimate contaminants, and –The environmental and economic feasibility of the various systems

10 Typical performance data:

11 What are the contaminants removed during tertiary treatment? –Suspended solids –Nutrients –Toxic compounds –Dissolved organics and inorganics

12 REMOVAL OF RESIDUAL CONSTITUNTS Suspended Solids Removal: –Granular-medium filters the bed depth the type of filtering medium used whether the filtering medium is stratified or unstratified the type of operation –Microstrainers

13 Fig. 12a. Types of shallow-bed filters (a) mono-medium downflow, (b) dual-medium downflow

14 Fig. 12b. Types of deep-bed filters (a) mono-medium downflow, (b) mono-medium upflow




18 Sizing of a filter: –Principal design criteria of a filter design is water flow rate and head loss –Usually we know flow rate of influent surface loading rate F low rate Surface area of filtering unit = Surface loading rate Head loss can be calculated using reference (MetCalf & Eddy, 1991)

19 Removal of Suspended Solids by Microscreaning:


21 (II) Nutrients Removal Basic nutrients present in the domestic wastewater are –Nitrogen (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate) –Phosphorus (soluble and insoluble) –Sulfate –Other compounds of nitrogen & phosphorus Problems associated with nutrients presence in wastewater are –accelerate the eutrophication –stimulate the growth of algae & rooted aquatic plants –aesthetic problems & nuisance

22 –depleting D.O. concentration in receiving waters –Toxicity towards aquatic life –increasing chlorine demand –presenting a public health hazard –affecting the suitability of wastewater for reuse Nutrient Control could be accomplished by: –physical methods –chemical methods, and –biological methods

23 Control and Removal of Nitrogen (Biologically): Removal of Nitrogen by Nitrification/Denitrification Processes: –It is a two step processes aerobic NH 4 - —> NO 3 - (nitrification) anoxic NO 3 - —> N 2 (denitrification) Removal of Nitrogen by Nitrification Processes: –1) Single-stage process –2) Separate-stage process

24 Fig. 8a. Typical carbon oxidation and nitrification processes (single-stage)

25 Fig. 8b. Typical carbon oxidation and nitrification processes (separate-stage)


27 Nitrification/Denitrification systems can be classified as: (a) Combined Nitrification/Denitrification Systems 1) Bardenpho process(four stage) 2) Oxidation Ditch process (b) Separate-Stage Denitrification Systems

28 Fig. 9a. Combined-stage nitrification/denitrification system (four-stage Bardenpho)

29 Fig. 9b. Combined-stage nitrification/denitrification system (oxidation ditch)

30 Fig. 10. Separate-stage denitrification process using a separate carbon source

31 Control and Removal of Nitrogen (Physical & Chemical Methods): – air Stripping – breakpoint chlorination – selective ion exchange

32 Fig. 11. Cross-section of a countercurrent ammonia-stripping tower

33 Breakpoint chlorination: –Oxidation of ammonia-nitrogen can be done by adding excess chlorine –Basic chemical equations: Cl 2 + H 2 O  HOCl + H + + Cl - NH 3 + HOCl  N 2  + N 2 O  + NO NO Cl -

34 Ion exchange process


36 Phosphorus Removal Biologically: Key to the biological phosphorus removal is the exposure of the microorganisms to alternating anaerobic & aerobic conditions Phosphorus Removal Processes –(1) Mainstream process –(2) Sidestream process –(3) Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR)

37 Fig. 12a. Biological phosphorus removal (mainstream process)

38 Fig. 12a. Biological phosphorus removal (sidestream process)


40 Removal of Phosphorus (Chemically) Commonly used chemicals are –alum, sodium aluminate, ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, lime, and etc. Factors affecting the choice of chemicals Influent phosphorus level Wastewater suspended solids Alkalinity Chemical cost Reliability of chemical supply Sludge handling facilities Ultimate disposal method Compatibility with other treatment processes



43 (III) Removal of Toxic Compounds: Special attention is given to priority pollutants & refractory organic compounds in recent years, due to: – carcinogenic – mutagenic – teratogenic – they are resistant to microbial degradation

44 Treatment methods –Biological –Chemical chemical oxidation coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration –Physical carbon adsorption air stripping

45 (1) Carbon Adsorption: It is an advanced wastewater treatment method used for the removal of refrectory organic compounds as well as residual amount of inorganic compounds Types of carbon contactors: Upflow columns Downflow columns Fixed beds Expanded beds

46 Fig. 17. Typical upflow countercurrent carbon column

47 (2) Chemical Oxidation: Chemical oxidation mainly done by –chlorine –chlorine dioxide, and –ozone Basic chemical equation : Oxidant + Compound  CO 2 + H 2 O + other products

48 (IV) Removal of Dissolved Inorganic Compounds –chemical precipitation –ion exchange –ultra-filtration –reverse osmosis –electrodialysis

49 Fig. 19. Ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis for the removal of dissolved organics

50 Fig. 20. Processes of reverse osmosis (a) direct osmosis, (b) osmotic equilibrium, (c) reverse osmosis


52 Tertiary Treatment of Wastewater in Saudi Arabia Large quantity of wastewater is being generated in kingdom of Saudi Arabia Quantities of wastewater generated –In 1994: Water Demand = 1.8 billion m 3 – WW Generated = 1.0 billion m 3 – WW Treated = 0.4 billion m 3 – WW Recycled = 0.1 billion m 3 –Water Demand in year 2000 = 2.8 billion m 3

53 Table 21: Present and projected flow of wastewater, generated (m3/d) in three cities of kingdom YEAR DAMMAMAL-KHOBAR QATIF , , , , , , , , , , , ,627 Source Al-Elaiw, M. (1994).

54 Secondary treatment is practiced in Dammam, Khobar, Qatif and Khafji Tertiary treatment is practiced in Royal Commission of Jubail and Yanbu (RCJY) In Jubail 100% of tertiary treated wastewater is being reused


56 Summary: –Growing demand and scarcity of water resources necessitate the need for the tertiary treatment of wastewater for reuse purposes –Tertiary treatment of wastewater mainly depends on the availability and practicality of technologies –Selection of the processes depends on the requirement –Residual contaminants to be removed during tertiary treatment are suspended solids, nutrients, toxic compounds, and dissolved inorganics


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