Presentation on theme: "Teaching Science & Reading to ELLs in Middle Schools"— Presentation transcript:
1 Teaching Science & Reading to ELLs in Middle Schools NEISD, 2011Presented byMinda Lopez, Ph. D.
2 In our time together we will discuss… State of academic literacy and ELLsResearch based practices for teaching reading in the content areasVocabulary instruction and ELLs
3 “It should be understood that adolescent ELLs are second language learners who are still developing their proficiency in academic English. Moreover, they are learning English at the same time they are studying core content areas through English. Thus, English language learners must perform double the work of native English speakers in the country’s middle and high schools. And, at the same time, they are being held to the same accountability standards as their native English-speaking peers.”Short and Fitzsimmons, 2007
5 StatementEvidenceELLs represent 17% of all the students in Texas public schools.PEIMS, 20092. There are approximately 80 different languages represented in Texas public schools.3. Arabic ranks 2nd in number of speakers in Texas public schools (Spanish is 1st).4. Nationally, 8th grade ELLs score 50 points below non ELLs on a national language arts test.NCES, 20035. Reading 14 minutes a day means reading over 1,000,000 words a year.Marzano, Krashen6. 75 % of adolescent ELLs were born in the United States, that is, they are second- or third- generation immigrantsBatalova, Fix, & Murray, 20057. There are more than 50 languages represented in NEISD.NEISD ELL services8. There are aprroximately 4,000 ELLs in NEISD.2009 PEIMS data– 17 %2009 PEIMS data – 1202009 PEIMS data Spanish, Vietnamese, Urdu, Arabic & Korean is the orderNationally, 8th grade ELLs score 41 points below non ELLs on a national language arts test.If students spend 25 minutes a day reading at a rate of 200 words per minute for 200 days, they will read a million words of text annually and encounter 15,000 and 30,000 unfamiliar words. If we can learn through direct instruction 1 out of 20 words, yearly gain in vocabulary will be between 750 to 1500 words.Fifty-seven percent of adolescent ELLs were born in the United States, that is, they are second- or third-generation immigrants, as shown in Figure 4 (Batalova, Fix, & Murray, 2005).YesThere are over 6,000 ELLs in NEISD
6 National statisticsOnly 30% of all secondary students read proficiently89% of Hispanic & 86% of African-American secondary students read below grade level (NCES, 2005)Almost 50% of students of color do not graduate from high school with a regular diploma in 4 years of instruction (Orfield, Losen,Wald, & Swanson, 2004)96% of the eighth-grade limited English proficient (LEP) students scored below the basic level of reading on the NAEP (Perie, Grigg, & Donahue, 2005)
7 Most Common Struggling Readers [Secondary] ELLs usually fall into this categoryResistive ReadersWord CallersHave learned to fake itWait for other students or teacher to give the answerDon’t understand that reading involves thinkingAssume that all they have to do is pronounce wordsThe only strategy they know/use is to sound out wordsAsking students to DO something with the text helps with both kinds of strugglers…those who need to DO something can’t rely on someone else for the answer, those who are simply word calling will need to stop and thinkTovani, 2000
8 Ask students to do something with the text interacting with and actively processing text is key to improving reading comprehension and learning for both resistive readers & word callers (Serran, 2002)This can include:questioning the text;creating visual representations of the text;paraphrasing through structured note taking or readers’ theatre;summarizing verbally or in writing;coding or comprehension monitoring when reading;or developing a response to the text that involves transposing, reorganizing, or rewriting certain sections.Studies indicate that students using these strategies learn more from the text, retain more of the information for a longer time, and improve their strategic reading skills (e.g., Serran, 2002).
9 Comparison of Struggling Readers & ELLs IndicatorAdolescent Native English Speaking Struggling ReadersAdolescent English Language LearnersPosition on the path to literacySchool career of intermittent failureUnsuccessful in learning to read/reading to learnUsually labeled as slow readers or in lower trackSome make steady progress toward academic literacy; language acquisition process may limit how fast they progress in learning to read, write, speak EnglishOthers manifest same struggles with reading/writing as native English speakersSome have had no opportunity for literacy development (preliterates)Page 2 of handouts
10 Research based Literacy Instruction for ELLs Includes explicit instruction in oral language, phonological awareness, the alphabetic code, fluency, vocabulary development, and reading comprehension.ExplicitAppliedRelevantBuilds on students’ prior knowledge, interests, motivation, and home language. Helps students make connections.Includes frequent opportunities to practice reading with a variety of materials in meaningful contexts. Promotes engagement.Reading First emphasizes that there are 5 “big ideas” in reading instruction: phonological awareness, the alphabetic code, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. One other “big idea” not included, though in the National Reading Panel report and emphasized in the precursor to this report, “Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children,” is motivation. When students aren’t motivated, little learning occurs. This is especially important for culturally and linguistically diverse students. Another important factor for English language learners is oral language.From Reading First
11 Research based practices for developing literacy in adolescent ELLs Integrate all four areas of language from the beginning (listening, speaking, reading & writing)Teach the components & processes of reading and writingPhonemic awareness and phonicsVocabularyText comprehensionFluencyPreviewingMaking predictionsParaphrasingInferringComponents of readingliterate adolescents are those who “can use reading, writing, speaking, listening, and thinking to learn what they want/need to learn AND can communicate/demonstrate that learning to others who need/want to know” (Meltzer, 2001). This clarifies that adolescent literacy is more than a focus on reading comprehension and much more than decoding (Langer, 2002; Martin, 2003; Scarcella, 2002). It acknowledges the literature’s emphasis on the interdependence and synergy of reading, writing, speaking, listening, and thinking skills in the adolescent learner’s construction of knowledge. As the word construction implies, our definition presumes an active dimension to literacy (Colombi, 2002). Literacy is not a static body of pre- determined knowledge; rather, literacy becomes manifest in the moment of knowledge deployment, in engaging with language to gather, generate, or convey meaning.Processes of reading
12 Research based practices for developing literacy in adolescent ELLs (continued) Teach reading comprehension strategiesFocus on Vocabulary DevelopmentBuild and Activate Background KnowledgeTeach language through content and themesUse Native Language StrategicallyPair technology with existing interventionsMotivate ELLs through choice
13 Today’s focus is on how to: Build and activate Background Knowledge(including strategic native language use)Use a variety of Reading Comprehension strategies that focus on reading as thinkingDevelop VocabularySee handout for some additional pointers on how to teach the components & processes of reading for ELLs who are struggling with issues of language and literacy
14 Build and Activate Background Knowledge Background knowledge is “the information a reader has in her head…a repository of memories, experiences, and facts” (Tovani, 2000, p. 64)Teachers know that information is best remembered when it is connected to a readers’ background knowledge and prior experience (schema theory – Anderson, 1977)Simple ideas:create a Venn diagram & ask students to talk about the overlap & differences between subject areasJot a topic on the board and have students write down/discuss what they know about it.
15 Words Across the Content Areas (Kylene Beers) What would ______ mean to : Example Word: “Base”Page 4 of handoutsProfession, kind of personDefinitionillustrationAn architectA baseball playerA soldierA hairdresserA mathematicianA chemistGreat for Tier 2 words
16 Build and Activate Background Knowledge Challenge: Many students (especially ELLs) think they do not have any knowledge about a topic…so talk to them about the difference between personal knowledge and personal experience to help them make connections to texts and topicsPersonal knowledge—information readers have from stories, movies, television, books, anything that helps them acquire information secondhandPersonal experience—information readers have gained from direct experienceTovani, 2000
17 Marking the text / annotation Strategy to get students to actively make connections to text
18 Marking the text Promotes active reading Condenses the material Increases comprehensionKey points with supporting infoThink then markMake connections and create visualsBring meaning to the print (personal)Serves as a comprehension monitorIf you are marking everything, shows that you may not have understood the material well enough to pick out the important info
20 How can we use native language strategically? What are the benefits to using native language in the classroom?What are some pitfalls?How does strategic native language use contribute to students’ engagement & comprehension with/of texts?
21 Second or target language (English) Preview/View/ReviewPage 9 of handoutsPreview5%Native language(L1)Teacher gives an overview of the lesson or activity in the students' first language. Can include a focus activity, oral summary, book reading, film, asking a key question, etc)View90%Second or target language (English)(L2)The teacher teaches the lesson or mini-lesson or directs the activity in English. Guided practice or independent practice is conducted in English. Students work together or in groups/pairs in English.ReviewNative LanguageThe teacher or students summarize key ideas and raise questions about the lesson in their first language.ESL TExES Review
22 What strategies do you use for building/tapping into background knowledge? Can you use any of these strategies with your ELLs? Which ones? How would you use them or tweak them? What is the role of native language use in your teaching?
23 Reading Comprehension and ELLs Reading comprehension is a complex process of constructing meaning by coordinating a number of skills related to decoding, word reading, and fluency and the integration of background knowledge.Many factors affect the reading comprehension of ELLs, such as:language proficiency,vocabulary knowledge,ability to use comprehension strategies,differences in text structure,culture influences,schema.
24 What’s Different About Comprehension? Some ELLs May:Enjoy pleasure reading in English if the topic is one that they would read about in their native language. (Krashen, 1982).Not have the prior knowledge needed to understand written texts because of socioeconomic status, educational background, cultural knowledge, or a combination of these factors. (Kamil, 2003; Peregoy & Boyle, 2001)Benefit from using their native language to discuss a topic before and after reading about it in English. (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998; Tankersley, 2005)Need to learn about a new culture and the ways language is used in social and academic contexts. (TESOL, 1997)
25 Reading Comprehension Strategies Typically little attention is paid to teaching ELLs how to use comprehension strategies because teachers tend to focus on word recognition, pronouncing words correctly, and answering literal comprehension questions.Teach reading strategies for into, through and beyond (Brinton et al, 1994) reading (this is also referred to as BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER).Reading comprehension is also closely tied to vocabulary– readers need to know approximately 90–95% of the words in a text in order to comprehend it (Nagy & Scott, 2000).
26 Into, Through & Beyond Key Vocabulary Guided oral reading Questioning/critical thinkingAnticipatory setJigsawSummarizationText/Discourse analysisGuided reading: DRTA/DLTAReflect & demonstrateGenerate hypothesisVisualizationBackward summaryWhole to part predictionReciprocal teaching and other chunking strategiesWriting to learn
27 Into: Text Analysis Why are Textbooks Hard to Read? Text Structure – The part to whole or big idea to subtopic is invisible to students.Information Overload - Textbooks are saturated with facts, names, charts, difficult or unfamiliar vocabulary, etc…The authority of the textbook - Everything must be true so no thinking or questioning really occurs.New Vocabulary and concepts – From the textbook are disconnected from prior knowledge and connections can’t be made.~ from Reading for Academic Success Strong et al
29 Discourse (Gee, 2001)“A Discourse integrates ways of talking, listening, writing, reading, acting, interacting, believing, valuing, and feeling (and using various objects, symbols, images, tools, and technologies) in the service of enacting meaningful socially situated identities and activities” (Gee, 2001)Content-area discourse includesvocabulary developmentunderstanding text structures;how the “big ideas” within a discipline are organized and connect;the resources, tools, and strategies used to think about that discipline;the spoken and written conventions of presentation in that discipline;the understanding of how to carry out inquiry in that content area (e.g., Langer, 1992; Stevens & Bean, 2003)
30 So it about more than just what we read.. Successful teachers also discuss and teach how we read and why we read in the ways we doFor example, think about scientific discussions – what kind of language or Discourse is needed to engage in such discussions?ability to ask questions,propose tentative answers,make predictions,and evaluate evidenceCertain linguistic structures, such as logical connectors, and specialized vocabulary, both science terminology and vocabulary that may have different meanings in a scientific context, are problematic for language minority students. Moreover, discourse patterns common to science such as compare/ contrast, cause/effect, and problem/solution require a high level of linguistic functioning. Thus, cognitive development in science is heavily dependent upon linguistic development (Fathman et al., 1992).
31 The trick to reading a textbook successfully is knowing… How the textbook is set up (text structures)provide important clues to the logic of the ideas being presentedthe forms and patterns of particular kinds of writing (e.g., narrative, persuasive, descriptive, compare/contrast, listing, chronology, summary, and problem/solution/effect)How to use physical aspects of text (text features)Provide resources for making sense of textbold or italicized print, graphics, indices, chapter headings, glossaries, hyperlinks, graphic organizers, chapter summaries, change in point of view, and bibliographiesHow to break the language code (Discourse of the discipline)~ from Painless Reading Comprehension Jones
32 Language Complexity (of test items and/or text) SimpleComplexMostly common/familiar words/phrases; no/few uncommon words/phrases, compound words, gerunds, figurative language, and/or idioms· Language is organized/structured (usually read from left to right)· Mostly simple sentence construction· No/little passive voice· Little variation in tense· Mostly one idea/detail per sentence· Mostly familiar construction (e.g., ’s for possessive; s and es for plural)· Mostly familiar text features (e.g., bulleted lists, bold face)Some common/familiar words/phrases; some uncommon words/phrases, compound words, gerunds, figurative language, and/or idioms· Language may or may not be organized/structured (or may require left to right and up and down eye movement)· Varied sentence construction, including complex sentence construction· Some passive voice· Variation in tense· Multiple ideas/details per sentence· Some less familiar/irregular construction· Some less familiar text features (e.g., pronunciation keys, text boxes)Page 15 of handoutssome content from Sato (2008, June)
33 Science “text” example Rather than looking at the pea plant as a whole, Mendel focused on seven individual traits that he could readily distinguish. He found that each trait has two alternate forms. For example, seed color can be green or yellow. By analyzing the results of various crosses, Mendel concluded that each alternative form of a trait is specified by alternative forms of a gene.To follow the inheritance of genes from parent to child, Mendel first needed to be sure which genes each parent carried. Since pea plants are naturally self-fertilizing, "pure-bred" strains were readily available. Each strain contained only one form of the gene that determined a trait. Pure-bred plants with yellow seeds only produced offspring with yellow seeds. Pure-bred plants with green seeds only produced offspring with green seeds. From the results of further experiments, Mendel reasoned that pure-bred plants must have two copies of the same gene for each trait.Page 15 of handouts
34 Into: Textbook Treasure Hunt/ THIEVES Step One: Title and AuthorWhat is the title of the textbook and who is/are the author (s) or editor (s) of the textbook?Step Two: Table of ContentsFind the table of contents in the front of the book. How many chapters are there? What is the title of the longest chapter? How many pages is it? What is the title of the shortest chapter? How many pages is it?Step Three: IndexIs there an index? Where in the book is the index located? (An index is an alphabetized list that points out on what page names, places, or topics can be found in the textbook.) Look up any topic under the letter C and locate it in the textbook.Step Four: GlossaryIs there a glossary? What page is it on? (A glossary is an alphabetized list of words and their meanings. It’s like a dictionary that includes just words used in that book.) Look up any word that starts with W. Read the definition.Step Five: TextbookWhat else is in the back of the textbook? Are there any other special sections like maps or lab guidelines or literary elements? If yes, list them and choose one word or one map or one set of guidelines to read.~ from Painless Reading Comprehension JonesPage 19 of handouts
35 Into: Channeling through the Chapter Choose any chapter in a textbook and channel, travel, or move through it finding the following information so you can see how the chapters are set up.Goals and Objectives: Are there any goals or objectives listed at the beginning of the chapter? They will probably be listed as statements of fact. If so, list them.Special Markings: Skim the chapter. Do you see any subheadings in bold face or italics? If so, list them. These subheadings are smaller ideas that are part of the larger ideas. Also, jot down if you know anything about the topics listed in bold face or italics.Graphics or Sidebars: Are there any sidebars (boxes with words in them off to the side) or graphics like pictures, charts, or maps in the chapter? Choose one and tell what it says or what it is trying to show.Exercises: Are there exercises at the end of each subtopic discussion or at the end of the chapter? Look at the first exercise and at the last exercise. What are they asking you or telling you to do?Summary: Is there a summary at the end of the chapter or a conclusion? How is it marked? Does it say “conclusion” or “reflection” or something else? Is it in bold face or italics?~ from Painless Reading Comprehension Jones
36 Textbooks & TeachingUse the textbook as it fits into your plan for your learners. Don’t let it dictate your classroom.If a textbook chapter has a summary or conclusion, have your students read it first. Why not? They will know the main points and when they read, they can simply add details to what they already know. Think backwards. Even ask them to write down the main ideas and find more information about those ideas as they read.
37 Beyond Reading: Textbook Response Sheet Chapter title:Pages read today: From_____ to ____Subheadings read today:List one important idea learned from each subheading.Write a paragraph (at least five sentences) summarizing what you read today.~from Real Reading, Real Writing Topping and McManusPage 26 of handouts
38 Reflect: What makes this a good strategy for ELLs Reflect: What makes this a good strategy for ELLs? Could you use any of these textbook reading strategies with your learners? Which ones? How would you use them? Why would you use them? When would you use them?
39 Through Reading: Sticky Notes Strategy While you are reading if a sentence, quote, phrase, passage, or paragraph makes you wonder about something, makes you curious, or question something, write that something down on a sticky note and place the sticky note under the word(s).I wonder…This reminds me of…I agree because…I disagree because…This makes sense to me because…This is confusing to me because…Page 22 of handouts
40 Reflect: What makes this a good strategy for ELLs Reflect: What makes this a good strategy for ELLs? How could you use the sticky note strategy with your learners? How could you modify the strategy?
41 Why do we need to connect to text anyway? Connecting to text keeps us from getting bored! It helps us pay attention and keeps our minds from wandering!Understanding characters and how they are feeling allows us to figure why they say and do what they do. It also helps to understand more about ourselves.Visualizing gives us a clearer picture in our head when we read and helps us stay involved and engaged in reading.Connecting to text forces us to read actively. We are reading and understanding – not just “word calling.”Connecting to text allows us to listen to others and have something to contribute when working in a group.Connecting to text allows us to question and questions lead to inferences and inferences lead to meaning.Connecting to text allows us to remember what we have read because the reading is personalized.~from I Read it, But Don’t Get it Tovani
42 Getting Kids to Make the Reading/ Writing Connection with Sticky Notes “Tell me more about that...” Taking what learners have written on their sticky notes which are a visual representation of their thinking and asking them to elaborate to create an authentic writing piece with voice.Have learners write a letter.Have learners write a summary of the main points.Have learners write a persuasive response.Have learners write a narrative.
45 Reciprocal Reading The key elements of Reciprocal Reading are: reading aloud with a partner or small groupclarifying words and ideasasking questions about the textsummarizing what was readand predicting what comes nextReaders have multiple opportunities to make meaning: re-reading, talking about the text, sharing insights and experiences, making connections, grappling with what the author had in mind, etc.Page 23 of handouts
46 Through: Self-monitoring “I’m Stuck” Strategies I'm stuck on: (put the passage in quotes and record page number(s)):I think I am stuck because:I will try to get unstuck by:I think I understand:~from I Read it, But Don’t Get it TovaniRelated activity: Click and ClunkPage 24 of handouts
47 Integrated: Four Thought Strategy Topic_______________What do you know? (Prereading associations)Describe it React to itAnalyze it Solve itPage 26 of handouts
48 Alternatives to Four Thought Instead of describing it, define it or sequence itInstead of analyzing it, compare or prove itInstead of solving it, visualize or metaphorize it or improve itInstead of reacting to it, be it or touch it~from Reading for Academic Success Strong et al
49 Beyond: Writing to Learn and to Process One effective strategy for producing language: sentence starters or stemsSome examples:When looking at the evidence I noticed that…Our research has shown that…The data I collected includes…Based on the information found …, I concluded that…I could use these strategies to solve the problem of...Page 27 of handouts
50 And a very important and related issue: vocabulary!
51 Vocabulary and ELLsSome ELLs are able to read phonetically (word calling) yet do not understand what they read.ELLS begin school knowing fewer English words and sayings than their peers.ELLs and English speakers may have different concepts for the same label.Words with multiple meanings, anaphora, and idioms can all cause confusion.ELLs literate in an L1 that has many cognates with English have an important resource.Anaphora---the use of a word as a regular grammatical substitute for a preceding word or group of words, as the use of it and do in I know it and he does too.
52 Pre-teach vocabulary using explicit instruction. Use visuals, diagrams, and concept maps.Paraphrase and demonstrate.Teach how to use:cognates,prefixes, suffixes, and root words to figure out word meanings,context clues,resources such as dictionaries and glossaries.Teach basic words as well as key wordsHelp students access and connect with their prior knowledge; build schema.Provide multiple exposures and frequent opportunities to practice words through multiple ways (listening, speaking, writing, reading).
53 Vocabulary Development According to Marzano (2004), there are 8 characteristics of effective direct vocabulary instruction1. Instruction does not rely on definitions2. Students must represent their knowledge of words in linguistic and nonlinguistic ways3. Instruction involves the gradual shaping of word meanings through multiple exposures4. Teaching word parts enhances students’ understanding of terms.
54 Vocabulary Development 5. Different types of words require different types of instruction.6. Students should discuss the terms they are learning.7. Students should play with words.8. Instruction should focus on terms that have high probability of enhancing academic success
55 Effective Direct Vocab. Inst. Instruction should focus on terms that have high probability of enhancing academic successBeck & McKeown’s (1985) three tier system does this!Marzano suggests tweaking their system a bit in order to enhance academic knowledge.
56 Three tiers of vocabulary Tier One Words- Consist of basic words and (for non ELLs) rarely require instructional attention in school; are highly frequent in life (BICS): clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc.Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains (these are targeted for instruction): coincidence, tamper, glimpse, accomplices, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc.Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific academic domains (Marzano states these are crucial to academic success): isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc.Beck, McKeown, & Kucan (2002).
57 Tier 1 Vocabulary & ELLsThese are typically BICS or social words and are high frequencyELLs may know the concept in their primary language but don’t know the label in EnglishbutterflySome are cognates, especially with Spanish (family/familia, preparation/preparacion)Includes common idioms and phrases
58 Tier 2 Vocabulary & ELLsThey are crucial for comprehension-- in grade level textsSometimes get left out for ELLs because ESL teachers focus on Tier 1 and content area teachers focus on Tier 3Lack of explicit instruction in Tier 2 words may contribute to a lack of reading comprehension in content areas (Calderon, 2007)Include connector words (so, at, into, within, by, if, then), some cognates (digestion/digestion, fortunate/afortunado), less common idioms and metaphors
59 The Language of the Content Areas Page 31 of handoutsBICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills)The Language of ScienceThe Language of MathThe Language of Social StudiesThe Language of English/ELAsmallestimateplethoraidenticalrulesmethod(your own)
60 Tier 3 Vocabulary and ELLs Low frequency wordsHighly technical and limited to specific domains/content areasLathe, peninsula, osmosis, polysemy, hyperboleMany are cognates (as in all the words above), but unless students have a high level of formal education in their first language, cognates may not help them understand concept
61 Three tiers of vocabulary Marzano has created content area word lists according to grade level to facilitate and target teaching of academic content words he says are necessary for success.These are the words that will enhance academic background knowledge in the content areas.There are other resources for vocabulary tiers such as
64 How do we select words to teach? Beck, McKeown & Kulcan say,Tier 1 don’t need to be taught… (do you agree for ELLs?)Tier 2 are selected according to the following criteria:Importance to understanding the textCharacteristic of mature language usersUsed across a variety of domainsPotential for building rich representations of the words (multiple meaning words)Words that allow students to provide precision and specificity in describing the conceptTier 3 are taught as they arise in texts and content area courses.
65 How do we select words to teach? Marzano has created content area word lists according to grade level to facilitate and target teaching of academic content words he says are necessary for success.These are the words that will enhance academic background knowledge in the content areas.
66 How do I decide what words to teach? For in-depth instruction, select words that are important for understanding the “big ideas” in the lesson (e.g., overarching concepts in mathematics).Focus on words that are both important and useful. By selecting words that students will frequently use and read, you help to build a strong vocabulary foundation.Select words that are domain specific and critical to understanding the topic, even if those words are not particularly useful (e.g., polygon).For ELLs, also select words that may not be critical to comprehending a particular text but that are commonly encountered across the content areas (e.g., categorize, process)
67 Concept Attainmentthe “search for and listing of words that can be used to distinguish exemplars from non-exemplars of various concepts.”Excellent strategy for helping students problem-solve and learn vocabulary and content area concepts based on their critical attributesExample Nonexample(Bruner, Goodnow, and Austin, 1967)
69 “Talk a Mile a Minute” Activity Teams of 3-4You may designate a “talker” for each round or make it a surprise --more like “cold call”.Try to get team to say each word by quickly describing them.May not use words in category title or rhyming words.Stahl & Clark (1987) found that students who knew they were not going to be called on during vocabulary instruction recalled fewer words than students who knew they might be called on in class.Multiple exposures to information are necessary to anchor that information in permanent memory.Students must process words multiple times.Discourse
70 Reflect: What makes a good vocabulary strategy for ELLs Reflect: What makes a good vocabulary strategy for ELLs? Which ones do find most helpful?