Presentation on theme: "NEISD, 2011 Presented by MINDA LOPEZ, PH. D. Teaching Science & Reading to ELLs in Middle Schools."— Presentation transcript:
NEISD, 2011 Presented by MINDA LOPEZ, PH. D. MINDA.LOPEZ@GMAIL.COM Teaching Science & Reading to ELLs in Middle Schools
In our time together we will discuss… State of academic literacy and ELLs Research based practices for teaching reading in the content areas Vocabulary instruction and ELLs
“It should be understood that adolescent ELLs are second language learners who are still developing their proficiency in academic English. Moreover, they are learning English at the same time they are studying core content areas through English. Thus, English language learners must perform double the work of native English speakers in the country’s middle and high schools. And, at the same time, they are being held to the same accountability standards as their native English-speaking peers.” Short and Fitzsimmons, 2007
Statement Evidence 1.ELLs represent 17% of all the students in Texas public schools. PEIMS, 2009 2. There are approximately 80 different languages represented in Texas public schools. PEIMS, 2009 3. Arabic ranks 2nd in number of speakers in Texas public schools (Spanish is 1st). PEIMS, 2009 4. Nationally, 8 th grade ELLs score 50 points below non ELLs on a national language arts test. NCES, 2003 5. Reading 14 minutes a day means reading over 1,000,000 words a year. Marzano, Krashen 6. 75 % of adolescent ELLs were born in the United States, that is, they are second- or third- generation immigrants Batalova, Fix, & Murray, 2005 7. There are more than 50 languages represented in NEISD. NEISD ELL services 8. There are aprroximately 4,000 ELLs in NEISD. NEISD ELL services
National statistics Only 30% of all secondary students read proficiently 89% of Hispanic & 86% of African-American secondary students read below grade level (NCES, 2005) Almost 50% of students of color do not graduate from high school with a regular diploma in 4 years of instruction (Orfield, Losen,Wald, & Swanson, 2004) 96% of the eighth-grade limited English proficient (LEP) students scored below the basic level of reading on the NAEP (Perie, Grigg, & Donahue, 2005)
Resistive Readers Word Callers Have learned to fake it Wait for other students or teacher to give the answer Don’t understand that reading involves thinking Assume that all they have to do is pronounce words The only strategy they know/use is to sound out words Most Common Struggling Readers [Secondary] Tovani, 2000 ELLs usually fall into this category
Ask students to do something with the text interacting with and actively processing text is key to improving reading comprehension and learning for both resistive readers & word callers (Serran, 2002) This can include: questioning the text; creating visual representations of the text; paraphrasing through structured note taking or readers’ theatre; summarizing verbally or in writing; coding or comprehension monitoring when reading; or developing a response to the text that involves transposing, reorganizing, or rewriting certain sections.
Comparison of Struggling Readers & ELLs IndicatorAdolescent Native English Speaking Struggling Readers Adolescent English Language Learners Position on the path to literacy School career of intermittent failure Unsuccessful in learning to read/reading to learn Usually labeled as slow readers or in lower track Some make steady progress toward academic literacy; language acquisition process may limit how fast they progress in learning to read, write, speak English Others manifest same struggles with reading/writing as native English speakers Some have had no opportunity for literacy development (preliterates) Page 2 of handouts
Explicit AppliedRelevant Builds on students’ prior knowledge, interests, motivation, and home language. Helps students make connections. Includes frequent opportunities to practice reading with a variety of materials in meaningful contexts. Promotes engagement. Includes explicit instruction in oral language, phonological awareness, the alphabetic code, fluency, vocabulary development, and reading comprehension. Research based Literacy Instruction for ELLs From Reading First
Research based practices for developing literacy in adolescent ELLs 1. Integrate all four areas of language from the beginning (listening, speaking, reading & writing) 2. Teach the components & processes of reading and writing Phonemic awareness and phonics Vocabulary Text comprehension Fluency Previewing Making predictions Paraphrasing Inferring Components of reading Processes of reading
Research based practices for developing literacy in adolescent ELLs (continued) 3. Teach reading comprehension strategies 4. Focus on Vocabulary Development 5. Build and Activate Background Knowledge 6. Teach language through content and themes 7. Use Native Language Strategically 8. Pair technology with existing interventions 9. Motivate ELLs through choice
Today’s focus is on how to: Build and activate Background Knowledge (including strategic native language use) Use a variety of Reading Comprehension strategies that focus on reading as thinking Develop Vocabulary See handout for some additional pointers on how to teach the components & processes of reading for ELLs who are struggling with issues of language and literacy
Build and Activate Background Knowledge Background knowledge is “the information a reader has in her head…a repository of memories, experiences, and facts” (Tovani, 2000, p. 64) Teachers know that information is best remembered when it is connected to a readers’ background knowledge and prior experience (schema theory – Anderson, 1977) Simple ideas: create a Venn diagram & ask students to talk about the overlap & differences between subject areas Jot a topic on the board and have students write down/discuss what they know about it.
Words Across the Content Areas (Kylene Beers) What would ______ mean to : Example Word: “Base” 15 Profession, kind of person Definitionillustration An architect A baseball player A soldier A hairdresser A mathematician A chemist Great for Tier 2 words Page 4 of handouts
Build and Activate Background Knowledge Challenge: Many students (especially ELLs) think they do not have any knowledge about a topic…so talk to them about the difference between personal knowledge and personal experience to help them make connections to texts and topics Personal knowledge—information readers have from stories, movies, television, books, anything that helps them acquire information secondhand Personal experience—information readers have gained from direct experience Tovani, 2000
Marking the text / annotation Strategy to get students to actively make connections to text
Marking the text Promotes active reading Condenses the material Increases comprehension Key points with supporting info Think then mark Make connections and create visuals Bring meaning to the print (personal) Serves as a comprehension monitor If you are marking everything, shows that you may not have understood the material well enough to pick out the important info
How can we use native language strategically? What are the benefits to using native language in the classroom? What are some pitfalls? How does strategic native language use contribute to students’ engagement & comprehension with/of texts?
21 Preview/View/Review Preview 5% Native language (L1) Teacher gives an overview of the lesson or activity in the students' first language. Can include a focus activity, oral summary, book reading, film, asking a key question, etc) View 90% Second or target language (English) (L2) The teacher teaches the lesson or mini- lesson or directs the activity in English. Guided practice or independent practice is conducted in English. Students work together or in groups/pairs in English. Review 5% Native Language (L1) The teacher or students summarize key ideas and raise questions about the lesson in their first language. Page 9 of handouts
What strategies do you use for building/tapping into background knowledge? Can you use any of these strategies with your ELLs? Which ones? How would you use them or tweak them? What is the role of native language use in your teaching?
Reading Comprehension and ELLs Reading comprehension is a complex process of constructing meaning by coordinating a number of skills related to decoding, word reading, and fluency and the integration of background knowledge. Many factors affect the reading comprehension of ELLs, such as: language proficiency, vocabulary knowledge, ability to use comprehension strategies, differences in text structure, culture influences, schema.
What’s Different About Comprehension? Enjoy pleasure reading in English if the topic is one that they would read about in their native language. (Krashen, 1982). Not have the prior knowledge needed to understand written texts because of socioeconomic status, educational background, cultural knowledge, or a combination of these factors. (Kamil, 2003; Peregoy & Boyle, 2001 ) Benefit from using their native language to discuss a topic before and after reading about it in English. (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998; Tankersley, 2005) Need to learn about a new culture and the ways language is used in social and academic contexts. (TESOL, 1997) Some ELLs May:
Reading Comprehension Strategies Typically little attention is paid to teaching ELLs how to use comprehension strategies because teachers tend to focus on word recognition, pronouncing words correctly, and answering literal comprehension questions. Teach reading strategies for into, through and beyond (Brinton et al, 1994) reading (this is also referred to as BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER). Reading comprehension is also closely tied to vocabulary– readers need to know approximately 90–95% of the words in a text in order to comprehend it (Nagy & Scott, 2000).
Into, Through & Beyond IntoThroughBeyond Key VocabularyGuided oral reading Questioning/critica l thinking Anticipatory setJigsawSummarization Text/Discourse analysis Guided reading: DRTA/DLTA Reflect & demonstrate Generate hypothesis VisualizationBackward summary Whole to part prediction Reciprocal teaching and other chunking strategies Writing to learn
Into: Text Analysis Why are Textbooks Hard to Read? Text Structure – The part to whole or big idea to subtopic is invisible to students. Information Overload - Textbooks are saturated with facts, names, charts, difficult or unfamiliar vocabulary, etc… The authority of the textbook - Everything must be true so no thinking or questioning really occurs. New Vocabulary and concepts – From the textbook are disconnected from prior knowledge and connections can’t be made. ~ from Reading for Academic Success Strong et al
Discourse (Gee, 2001) “A Discourse integrates ways of talking, listening, writing, reading, acting, interacting, believing, valuing, and feeling (and using various objects, symbols, images, tools, and technologies) in the service of enacting meaningful socially situated identities and activities” (Gee, 2001) Content-area discourse includes vocabulary development understanding text structures; how the “big ideas” within a discipline are organized and connect; the resources, tools, and strategies used to think about that discipline; the spoken and written conventions of presentation in that discipline; the understanding of how to carry out inquiry in that content area (e.g., Langer, 1992; Stevens & Bean, 2003)
So it about more than just what we read.. Successful teachers also discuss and teach how we read and why we read in the ways we do For example, think about scientific discussions – what kind of language or Discourse is needed to engage in such discussions? ability to ask questions, propose tentative answers, make predictions, and evaluate evidence
The trick to reading a textbook successfully is knowing… How the textbook is set up (text structures) provide important clues to the logic of the ideas being presented the forms and patterns of particular kinds of writing (e.g., narrative, persuasive, descriptive, compare/contrast, listing, chronology, summary, and problem/solution/effect) How to use physical aspects of text (text features) Provide resources for making sense of text bold or italicized print, graphics, indices, chapter headings, glossaries, hyperlinks, graphic organizers, chapter summaries, change in point of view, and bibliographies How to break the language code (Discourse of the discipline) ~ from Painless Reading Comprehension Jones
32 Language Complexity (of test items and/or text) SimpleComplex Mostly common/familiar words/phrases; no/few uncommon words/phrases, compound words, gerunds, figurative language, and/or idioms Language is organized/structured (usually read from left to right) Mostly simple sentence construction No/little passive voice Little variation in tense Mostly one idea/detail per sentence Mostly familiar construction (e.g., ’s for possessive; s and es for plural) Mostly familiar text features (e.g., bulleted lists, bold face) Some common/familiar words/phrases; some uncommon words/phrases, compound words, gerunds, figurative language, and/or idioms Language may or may not be organized/structured (or may require left to right and up and down eye movement) Varied sentence construction, including complex sentence construction Some passive voice Variation in tense Multiple ideas/details per sentence Some less familiar/irregular construction Some less familiar text features (e.g., pronunciation keys, text boxes) some content from Sato (2008, June) Page 15 of handouts
Science “text” example Rather than looking at the pea plant as a whole, Mendel focused on seven individual traits that he could readily distinguish. He found that each trait has two alternate forms. For example, seed color can be green or yellow. By analyzing the results of various crosses, Mendel concluded that each alternative form of a trait is specified by alternative forms of a gene. To follow the inheritance of genes from parent to child, Mendel first needed to be sure which genes each parent carried. Since pea plants are naturally self-fertilizing, "pure-bred" strains were readily available. Each strain contained only one form of the gene that determined a trait. Pure-bred plants with yellow seeds only produced offspring with yellow seeds. Pure-bred plants with green seeds only produced offspring with green seeds. From the results of further experiments, Mendel reasoned that pure-bred plants must have two copies of the same gene for each trait. http://www.dnaftb.org/2/ Page 15 of handouts
Into: Textbook Treasure Hunt/ THIEVES Step One: Title and Author What is the title of the textbook and who is/are the author (s) or editor (s) of the textbook? Step Two: Table of Contents Find the table of contents in the front of the book. How many chapters are there? What is the title of the longest chapter? How many pages is it? What is the title of the shortest chapter? How many pages is it? Step Three: Index Is there an index? Where in the book is the index located? (An index is an alphabetized list that points out on what page names, places, or topics can be found in the textbook.) Look up any topic under the letter C and locate it in the textbook. Step Four: Glossary Is there a glossary? What page is it on? (A glossary is an alphabetized list of words and their meanings. It’s like a dictionary that includes just words used in that book.) Look up any word that starts with W. Read the definition. Step Five: Textbook What else is in the back of the textbook? Are there any other special sections like maps or lab guidelines or literary elements? If yes, list them and choose one word or one map or one set of guidelines to read. ~ from Painless Reading Comprehension Jones Page 19 of handouts
Into: Channeling through the Chapter Choose any chapter in a textbook and channel, travel, or move through it finding the following information so you can see how the chapters are set up. Goals and Objectives: Are there any goals or objectives listed at the beginning of the chapter? They will probably be listed as statements of fact. If so, list them. Special Markings: Skim the chapter. Do you see any subheadings in bold face or italics? If so, list them. These subheadings are smaller ideas that are part of the larger ideas. Also, jot down if you know anything about the topics listed in bold face or italics. Graphics or Sidebars: Are there any sidebars (boxes with words in them off to the side) or graphics like pictures, charts, or maps in the chapter? Choose one and tell what it says or what it is trying to show. Exercises: Are there exercises at the end of each subtopic discussion or at the end of the chapter? Look at the first exercise and at the last exercise. What are they asking you or telling you to do? Summary: Is there a summary at the end of the chapter or a conclusion? How is it marked? Does it say “conclusion” or “reflection” or something else? Is it in bold face or italics? ~ from Painless Reading Comprehension Jones
Textbooks & Teaching Use the textbook as it fits into your plan for your learners. Don’t let it dictate your classroom. If a textbook chapter has a summary or conclusion, have your students read it first. Why not? They will know the main points and when they read, they can simply add details to what they already know. Think backwards. Even ask them to write down the main ideas and find more information about those ideas as they read.
Beyond Reading: Textbook Response Sheet 1. Chapter title: 2. Pages read today: From_____ to ____ 3. Subheadings read today: 4. List one important idea learned from each subheading. 5. Write a paragraph (at least five sentences) summarizing what you read today. ~from Real Reading, Real Writing Topping and McManus Page 26 of handouts
Reflect: What makes this a good strategy for ELLs? Could you use any of these textbook reading strategies with your learners? Which ones? How would you use them? Why would you use them? When would you use them?
Through Reading: Sticky Notes Strategy While you are reading if a sentence, quote, phrase, passage, or paragraph makes you wonder about something, makes you curious, or question something, write that something down on a sticky note and place the sticky note under the word(s). I wonder… This reminds me of… I agree because… I disagree because… This makes sense to me because… This is confusing to me because… Page 22 of handouts
Reflect: What makes this a good strategy for ELLs? How could you use the sticky note strategy with your learners? How could you modify the strategy?
Why do we need to connect to text anyway? Connecting to text keeps us from getting bored! It helps us pay attention and keeps our minds from wandering! Understanding characters and how they are feeling allows us to figure why they say and do what they do. It also helps to understand more about ourselves. Visualizing gives us a clearer picture in our head when we read and helps us stay involved and engaged in reading. Connecting to text forces us to read actively. We are reading and understanding – not just “word calling.” Connecting to text allows us to listen to others and have something to contribute when working in a group. Connecting to text allows us to question and questions lead to inferences and inferences lead to meaning. Connecting to text allows us to remember what we have read because the reading is personalized. ~ from I Read it, But Don’t Get it Tovani
Getting Kids to Make the Reading/ Writing Connection with Sticky Notes “Tell me more about that...” Taking what learners have written on their sticky notes which are a visual representation of their thinking and asking them to elaborate to create an authentic writing piece with voice. Have learners write a letter. Have learners write a summary of the main points. Have learners write a persuasive response. Have learners write a narrative.
Reciprocal Reading The key elements of Reciprocal Reading are: 1. reading aloud with a partner or small group 2. clarifying words and ideas 3. asking questions about the text 4. summarizing what was read 5. and predicting what comes next Readers have multiple opportunities to make meaning: re-reading, talking about the text, sharing insights and experiences, making connections, grappling with what the author had in mind, etc. Page 23 of handouts
Through: Self-monitoring “I’m Stuck” Strategies I’m Stuck I'm stuck on: (put the passage in quotes and record page number(s)): I think I am stuck because: I will try to get unstuck by: I think I understand: ~from I Read it, But Don’t Get it Tovani Related activity: Click and Clunk Page 24 of handouts
Integrated: Four Thought Strategy Topic_______________ What do you know? (Prereading associations) Describe itReact to it Analyze itSolve it Page 26 of handouts
Alternatives to Four Thought Instead of describing it, define it or sequence it Instead of analyzing it, compare or prove it Instead of solving it, visualize or metaphorize it or improve it Instead of reacting to it, be it or touch it ~from Reading for Academic Success Strong et al
Beyond: Writing to Learn and to Process One effective strategy for producing language: sentence starters or stems Some examples: When looking at the evidence I noticed that… Our research has shown that… The data I collected includes… Based on the information found …, I concluded that… I could use these strategies to solve the problem of... Page 27 of handouts
And a very important and related issue: vocabulary!
Vocabulary and ELLs Some ELLs are able to read phonetically (word calling) yet do not understand what they read. ELLS begin school knowing fewer English words and sayings than their peers. ELLs and English speakers may have different concepts for the same label. Words with multiple meanings, anaphora, and idioms can all cause confusion. ELLs literate in an L1 that has many cognates with English have an important resource.
Pre-teach vocabulary using explicit instruction. Use visuals, diagrams, and concept maps. Paraphrase and demonstrate. Teach how to use: cognates, prefixes, suffixes, and root words to figure out word meanings, context clues, resources such as dictionaries and glossaries. Teach basic words as well as key words Help students access and connect with their prior knowledge; build schema. Provide multiple exposures and frequent opportunities to practice words through multiple ways (listening, speaking, writing, reading).
Vocabulary Development According to Marzano (2004), there are 8 characteristics of effective direct vocabulary instruction 1. Instruction does not rely on definitions 2. Students must represent their knowledge of words in linguistic and nonlinguistic ways 3. Instruction involves the gradual shaping of word meanings through multiple exposures 4. Teaching word parts enhances students’ understanding of terms.
Vocabulary Development 5. Different types of words require different types of instruction. 6. Students should discuss the terms they are learning. 7. Students should play with words. 8. Instruction should focus on terms that have high probability of enhancing academic success
Effective Direct Vocab. Inst. 8. Instruction should focus on terms that have high probability of enhancing academic success Beck & McKeown’s (1985) three tier system does this! Marzano suggests tweaking their system a bit in order to enhance academic knowledge.
Three tiers of vocabulary Tier One Words- Consist of basic words and (for non ELLs) rarely require instructional attention in school; are highly frequent in life (BICS): clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc. Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains (these are targeted for instruction): coincidence, tamper, glimpse, accomplices, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc. Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific academic domains (Marzano states these are crucial to academic success): isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc. Beck, McKeown, & Kucan (2002).
57 Tier 1 Vocabulary & ELLs These are typically BICS or social words and are high frequency ELLs may know the concept in their primary language but don’t know the label in English butterfly Some are cognates, especially with Spanish (family/familia, preparation/preparacion) Includes common idioms and phrases
Tier 2 Vocabulary & ELLs They are crucial for comprehension-- in grade level texts Sometimes get left out for ELLs because ESL teachers focus on Tier 1 and content area teachers focus on Tier 3 Lack of explicit instruction in Tier 2 words may contribute to a lack of reading comprehension in content areas (Calderon, 2007) Include connector words (so, at, into, within, by, if, then), some cognates (digestion/digestion, fortunate/afortunado), less common idioms and metaphors
The Language of the Content Areas BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communicatio n Skills) The Language of Science The Language of Math The Language of Social Studies The Language of English/ELA small estimate plethora identical rules method (your own) 59 Page 31 of handouts
Tier 3 Vocabulary and ELLs Low frequency words Highly technical and limited to specific domains/content areas Lathe, peninsula, osmosis, polysemy, hyperbole Many are cognates (as in all the words above), but unless students have a high level of formal education in their first language, cognates may not help them understand concept
61 Three tiers of vocabulary Marzano has created content area word lists according to grade level to facilitate and target teaching of academic content words he says are necessary for success. These are the words that will enhance academic background knowledge in the content areas. There are other resources for vocabulary tiers such as http://elltx.org/instructional.html
How do we select words to teach? Beck, McKeown & Kulcan say, Tier 1 don’t need to be taught… (do you agree for ELLs?) Tier 2 are selected according to the following criteria: Importance to understanding the text Characteristic of mature language users Used across a variety of domains Potential for building rich representations of the words (multiple meaning words) Words that allow students to provide precision and specificity in describing the concept Tier 3 are taught as they arise in texts and content area courses. 64
How do we select words to teach? Marzano has created content area word lists according to grade level to facilitate and target teaching of academic content words he says are necessary for success. These are the words that will enhance academic background knowledge in the content areas.
How do I decide what words to teach? For in-depth instruction, select words that are important for understanding the “big ideas” in the lesson (e.g., overarching concepts in mathematics). Focus on words that are both important and useful. By selecting words that students will frequently use and read, you help to build a strong vocabulary foundation. Select words that are domain specific and critical to understanding the topic, even if those words are not particularly useful (e.g., polygon). For ELLs, also select words that may not be critical to comprehending a particular text but that are commonly encountered across the content areas (e.g., categorize, process)
Concept Attainment the “search for and listing of words that can be used to distinguish exemplars from non-exemplars of various concepts.” Excellent strategy for helping students problem- solve and learn vocabulary and content area concepts based on their critical attributes (Bruner, Goodnow, and Austin, 1967) ExampleNonexample
69 “Talk a Mile a Minute” Activity Teams of 3-4 You may designate a “talker” for each round or make it a surprise --more like “cold call”. Try to get team to say each word by quickly describing them. May not use words in category title or rhyming words. Discourse
Reflect: What makes a good vocabulary strategy for ELLs? Which ones do find most helpful?