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THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR II AMERICA TURNS THE TIDE.

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1 THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR II AMERICA TURNS THE TIDE

2 Timeline: What’s Happening?  United States:  1941 – Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor  1942 – Japanese Americans are sent to relocation centers  1945 – US Marines take Iwo Jima  World:  1941 – Hitler invades the Soviet Union  Nazi’s develop the “final solution” for exterminating Jews  1945 – Japan surrenders after atomic bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima

3 Section One: Mobilizing for Defense:  Main Idea: Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States mobilized for war.  Why it Matters Now: Military industries in the United States today are a major part of the American economy.  Key Terms:  George Marshall  Women’s Auxiliary Army Corp (WAAC)  A. Philip Randolph  Manhattan Project  Key Terms:  Office of Price Administration (OPA)  War Production Board (WPB)  Rationing

4 Section 1: Objectives:  By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:  1. Explain how the United States expanded its armed forces in World War II.  2. Describe the wartime mobilization of industry, labor, scientists, and the media.  3. Trace the efforts of the US government to control the economy and deal with alleged subversion.

5 SECTION 1: MOBILIZING FOR DEFENSE  After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, they thought America would avoid further conflict with them  The Japan Times newspaper said America was “trembling in their shoes”  But if America was trembling, it was with rage, not fear  “Remember Pearl Harbor” was the rallying cry as America entered WWII

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7 AMERICANS RUSH TO ENLIST  After Pearl Harbor five million Americans enlisted to fight in the war  The Selective Service expanded the draft and eventually provided an additional 10 million soldiers

8 Why do you think that Japan felt that America wouldn’t go to war with them, even after the Pearl Harbor attack? 1. America’s army was no match for Japan 2. Japan was involved with many other large communist countries 3. America was in a period of isolationism 4. America did not have the financial resources for war

9 The United Service did not use the draft to enlist soldiers during WWII. 1. True 2. False

10 If a world war started today, do you think that 5 million Americans would volunteer to fight? 1. Yes 2. No 3. Maybe

11 WOMEN JOIN THE FIGHT  Army Chief of Staff General George Marshall pushed for the formation of the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)  Under this program women worked in non- combat roles such as nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, and pilots

12 George Marshall argued for the creation of the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps. This would allow women to serve in 1. Combat 2. Noncombat positions 3. Home front workplaces 4. None of the above

13 ALL AMERICANS FOUGHT Despite discrimination at home, minority populations contributed to the war effort  1,000,000 African Americans served in the military  300,000 Mexican-Americans  33,000 Japanese Americans  25,000 Native Americans  13,000 Chinese Americans These “Golden 13” Great Lakes officers scored the highest marks ever on the Officers exam in 1944

14 Minorities served in the U.S. military and played a prominent role. 1. True 2. False

15 A PRODUCTION MIRACLE  Americans converted their auto industry into a war industry  The nation’s automobile plants began to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars  Many other industries also converted to war- related supplies

16 LABOR’S CONTRIBUTION  By 1944, nearly 18 million workers were laboring in war industries (3x the # in 1941)  More than 6 million of these were women and nearly 2 million were minority

17 This group was responsible for monitoring production of wartime goods. 1. Office of Scientific Research 2. Manhattan Project 3. War Production Board 4. Office of Price Administration

18 MOBILIZATION OF SCIENTISTS  In 1941, FDR created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) to bring scientists into the war effort  Focus was on radar and sonar to locate submarines  Also the scientists worked on penicillin and pesticides like DDT

19 MANHATTAN PROJECT  The most important achievement of the OSRD was the secret development of the atomic bomb  Einstein wrote to FDR warning him that the Germans were attempting to develop such a weapon  The code used to describe American efforts to build the bomb was the “Manhattan Project”

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22 What are your thoughts on Nuclear Warfare? 1. I feel that it may be necessary in war 2. I don’t like it, but could see why it was used 3. Not sure 4. It should never be used in warfare

23 FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TAKES CONTROL OF INFLATION  With prices of goods threatening to rise out of control, FDR responded by creating the Office of Price Administration (OPA)  The OPA froze prices on most goods and encouraged the purchase of war bonds to fight inflation

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25 WAR PRODUCTION BOARD  To ensure the troops had ample resources, FDR created the WPB  The WPB decided which companies would convert to wartime production and how to best allocate raw materials to those industries

26 Why was the War Production Board important? 1. To ensure that troops had jobs when they came back from war 2. To allow women in the workforce 3. To allocate which companies need to create materials for the war and which companies need to create materials for domestic use 4. To allow the government to raise money for the war

27 COLLECTION DRIVES  The WPB also organized nationwide drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags and cooking fat for recycling  Additionally, the OPA set up a system of rationing  Households had set allocations of scarce goods – gas, meat, shoes, sugar, coffee

28 Propaganda was used heavily by the entertainment industry. 1. True 2. False

29 WWII Poster encouraging conservation

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31 Section Two: Objectives  By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:  1. Summarize the Allies’ plan for winning the war  2. Identify events in the war in Europe  3. Describe the liberation of Europe

32 Section Two: The War for Europe and North Africa  Main Idea: Allied forces, led by the United States and Great Britain, battle Axis powers for control of Europe and North Africa.  Why it Matters Now: During World War II, the United States assumed a leading role in world affairs that continues today.  Key Terms:  Dwight D. Eisenhower  D-Day  Omar Bradley  Key Terms:  George Patton  Battle of the Bulge  V-E Day  Harry S. Truman

33 SECTION 2: THE WAR FOR EUROPE AND NORTH AFRICA  Days after Pearl Harbor, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrived at the White House and spent three weeks working out war plans with FDR  They decided to focus on defeating Hitler first and then turn their attention to Japan

34 THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC  After America’s entry into the war, Hitler was determined to prevent foods and war supplies from reaching Britain and the USSR from America’s east coast  He ordered submarine raids on U.S. ships on the Atlantic  During the first four months of 1942 Germany sank 87 U.S. ships The power of the German submarines was great, and in two months' time almost two million tons of Allied ships were resting on the ocean floor. Efforts were soon made to restrict German subs' activities.

35 ALLIES CONTROL U-BOATS  In the first seven months of 1942, German U-boats sank 681 Allied ships in the Atlantic  Something had to be done or the war at sea would be lost  First, Allies used convoys of ships & airplanes to transport supplies  Destroyers used sonar to track U-boats  Airplanes were used to track the U-boats ocean surfaces  With this improved tracking, Allies inflicted huge losses on German U-boats U-426 sinks after attack from the air, January Almost two- thirds of all U-boat sailors died during the Battle of the Atlantic.

36 Why were convoys an appropriate way to deter German U-boats from attacking? 1. The convoys were armed with explosives that might also destroy the German ships 2. The German U-boats couldn’t get around the convoy to attack 3. The convoy system allowed the Allied ships to pass through because they were such a formidable opponent and the German U-boats wouldn’t have a chance 4. German officials didn’t want to give up the strategic location of their U-boats

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38 THE EASTERN FRONT & MEDITERRANEAN  Hitler wanted to wipe out Stalingrad – a major industrial center  In the summer of 1942, the Germans took the offensive in the southern Soviet Union  By the winter of 1943, the Allies began to see victories on land as well as sea  The first great turning point was the Battle of Stalingrad Battle of Stalingrad was a huge Allied victory

39 BATTLE OF STALINGRAD For weeks the Germans pressed in on Stalingrad Then winter set in and the Germans were wearing summer uniforms The Germans surrendered in January of 1943 The Soviets lost more than 1 million men in the battle (more than twice the number of deaths the U.S. suffered in all the war) Wounded in the Battle of Stalingrad

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41 Why was the Battle of Stalingrad so important? 1. Stalin lost so many troops 2. Hitler’s troops were forced back for the first time 3. The US helped to defeat the Soviets 4. Stalingrad was a key military outpost 25

42 THE NORTH AFRICAN FRONT  “Operation Torch” – an invasion of Axis -controlled North Africa --was launched by American General Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1942  Allied troops landed in Casablanca, Oran and the Algiers in Algeria  They sped eastward chasing the Afrika Korps led by German General Edwin Rommel American tanks roll in the deserts of Africa and defeat German and Axis forces

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44 Allied troops landed in Casa- blanca, Oran and the Algiers

45 CASABLANCA MEETING  FDR and Churchill met in Casablanca and decided their next moves  1) Plan amphibious invasions of France and Italy  2) Only unconditional surrender would be accepted FDR and Churchill in Casablanca

46 ITALIAN CAMPAIGN – ANOTHER ALLIED VICTORY  The Italian Campaign got off to a good start as the Allies easily took Sicily  At that point King Emmanuel III stripped Mussolini of his power and had him arrested  However, Hitler’s forces continued to resist the Allies in Italy  Heated battles ensued and it wasn’t until 1945 that Italy was secured by the Allies

47 TUSKEGEE AIRMEN  Among the brave men who fought in Italy were pilots of the all- black 99 th squadron – the Tuskegee Airmen  The pilots made numerous effective strikes against Germany and won two distinguished Unit Citations

48 On May 31, 1943, the 99 th Squadron, the first group of African-American pilots trained at the Tuskegee Institute, arrived in North Africa

49 ALLIES LIBERATE EUROPE  Even as the Allies were battling for Italy, they began plans on a dramatic invasion of France  It was known as “Operation Overlord” and the commander was American General Dwight D. Eisenhower  Also called “D-Day,” the operation involved 3 million U.S. & British troops and was set for June 6, 1944 Allies sent fake coded messages indicating they would attack here

50 D-DAY JUNE 6, 1944  D-Day was the largest land-sea-air operation in military history  Despite air support, German retaliation was brutal – especially at Omaha Beach  Within a month, the Allies had landed 1 million troops, 567,000 tons of supplies and 170,000 vehicles D-Day was an amphibious landing – soldiers going from sea to land

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52 OMAHA BEACH 6/6/44

53 Landing at Normandy

54 Planes drop paratroopers behind enemy lines at Normandy, France

55 Losses were extremely heavy on D-Day

56 Why is D-Day one of the most remembered moments in war history? 1. Because the American and British forces worked together 2. Because the soldiers took Normandy against all odds 3. Hitler’s troops were most focused at Normandy 4. D-Day won the war for the Allies 25

57 FRANCE FREED  By September 1944, the Allies had freed France, Belgium and Luxembourg  That good news – and the American’s people’s desire not to “change horses in midstream” – helped elect FDR to an unprecedented 4 th term General George Patton (right) was instrumental in Allies freeing France

58 BATTLE OF THE BULGE  In October 1944, Americans captured their first German town (Aachen)– the Allies were closing in  Hitler responded with one last ditch massive offensive  Hitler hoped breaking through the Allied line would break up Allied supply lines

59 BATTLE OF THE BULGE  The battle raged for a month – the Germans had been pushed back  Little seemed to have changed, but in fact the Germans had sustained heavy losses  Germany lost 120,000 troops, 600 tanks and 1,600 planes  From that point on the Nazis could do little but retreat The Battle of the Bulge was Germany’s last gasp

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61 What was Hitler’s hope during the Battle of the Bulge? 1. That he could successfully split up the supply lines of the British and Americans 2. That he decisively win the war 3. That he could gain France as a territory 4. That the Soviet troops would aid him in defeating the Allied forces 25

62 LIBERATION OF DEATH CAMPS  While the British and Americans moved westward into Germany, the Soviets moved eastward into German-controlled Poland  The Soviets discovered many death camps that the Germans had set up within Poland  The Americans also liberated Nazi death camps within Germany

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65 ALLIES TAKE BERLIN; HITLER COMMITS SUICIDE  By April 25, 1945, the Soviet army had stormed Berlin  In his underground headquarters in Berlin, Hitler prepared for the end  On April 29, he married his longtime girlfriend Eva Braun then wrote a last note in which he blamed the Jews for starting the war and his generals for losing it  The next day he gave poison to his wife and shot himself

66 V-E DAY  General Eisenhower accepted the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich  On May 8, 1945, the Allies celebrated V-E Day – victory in Europe Day  The war in Europe was finally over

67 Famous picture of an American soldier celebrating the end of the war

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69 FDR DIES; TRUMAN PRESIDENT President Roosevelt did not live to see V-E Day On April 12, 1945, he suffered a stroke and died– his VP Harry S Truman became the nation’s 33rd president

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71 Section Three: Objectives  By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:  1. Identify key turning points in the war in the Pacific  2. Describe the Allied offensive against the Japanese

72 Section Three: The War in the Pacific  Main Idea: In order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the United States unleashed a terrible new weapon, the atomic bomb.  Why it Matters Now: Countries of the modern world struggle to find ways to prevent the use of nuclear weapons.  Key Terms:  Douglas MacArthur  Chester Nimitz  Battle of Midway  Kamikaze  Key Terms:  J. Robert Oppenheimer  Hiroshima  Nagasaki  Nuremberg Trials

73 SECTION 3: THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC  The Americans did not celebrate long, as Japan was busy conquering an empire that dwarfed Hitler’s Third Reich  Japan had conquered much of southeast Asia including the Dutch East Indies, Guam, and most of China

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75 BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA  The main Allied forces in the Pacific were Americans and Australians  In May 1942 they succeeded in stopping the Japanese drive toward Australia in the five- day Battle of the Coral Sea

76 THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY  Japan’s next thrust was toward Midway Island – a strategic Island northwest of Hawaii  Admiral Chester Nimitz, the Commander of American Naval forces in the Pacific, moved to defend the Island  The Americans won a decisive victory as their planes destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and 250 planes

77 The Battle of Midway was a turning point in the war – soon the Allies were island hopping toward Japan

78 IWO JIMA  General MacArthur and the Allies next turned to the Island of Iwo Jima  The island was critical to the Allies as a base for an attack on Japan  It was called the most heavily defended spot on earth  Allied and Japanese forces suffered heavy casualties American soldiers plant the flag on the Island of Iwo Jima after their victory

79 THE BATTLE FOR OKINAWA  In April 1945, U.S. marines invaded Okinawa  The Japanese unleashed 1,900 Kamikaze attacks sinking 30 ships and killing 5,000 seamen  Okinawa cost the Americans 7,600 marines and the Japanese 110,000 soldiers

80 KAMIKAZE PILOTS ATTACK ALLIES  Japanese countered by employing a new tactic – Kamikaze (divine wind) attacks  Pilots in small bomb- laden planes would crash into Allied ships  Why kamikaze? Part of bushido-way of the warrior In the Battle for the Philippines, 424 Kamikaze pilots sank 16 ships and damaged 80 more

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82 INVADE JAPAN?  After Okinawa, MacArthur predicted that a Normandy type amphibious invasion of Japan would result in 1,500,000 Allied deaths  President Truman saw only one way to avoid an invasion of Japan... The loss of life at Iwo Jima and Okinawa convinced Allied leaders that an invasion of Japan was not the best idea Okinawa

83 ATOMIC BOMB DEVELOPED  Japan had a huge army that would defend every inch of the Japanese mainland  So Truman decided to use a powerful new weapon developed by scientists working on the Manhattan Project – the Atomic Bomb

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85 U.S. DROPS TWO ATOMIC BOMBS ON JAPAN  Truman warned Japan in late July 1945 that without a immediate Japanese surrender, it faced “prompt and utter destruction”  On August 6 (Hiroshima) and August 9 (Nagasaki) a B-29 bomber dropped Atomic Bombs on Japan The plane and crew that dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan

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87 August 6, 1945 HIROSHIMA

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89 August 9, 1945 NAGASAKI

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91 JAPAN SURRENDERS At the White House, President Harry Truman announces the Japanese surrender, August 14, 1945 Japan surrendered days after the second atomic bomb was dropped General MacArthur said, “Today the guns are silent. The skies no longer rain death...the entire world is quietly at peace.”

92 THE YALTA CONFERENCE  In February 1945, as the Allies pushed toward victory in Europe, an ailing FDR met with Churchill and Stalin at the Black Sea resort of Yalta in the USSR  A series of compromises were worked out concerning postwar Europe (L to R) Churchill, FDR and Stalin at Yalta

93 YALTA AGREEMENTS  1) They agreed to divide Germany into 4 occupied zones after the war  2) Stalin agreed to free elections in Eastern Europe  3) Stalin agreed to help the U.S. in the war against Japan and to join the United Nations

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95 NUREMBERG WAR TRIALS  The discovery of Hitler’s death camps led the Allies to put 24 surviving Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity, crimes against the peace, and war crimes  The trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany  “I was only following orders” was not an acceptable defense as 12 of the 24 were sentenced to death and the others to life in prison Herman Goering, Hitler's right-hand man and chief architect of the German war effort, testifies at his trial. He was found guilty of war crimes but avoided execution by swallowing potassium cyanide.

96 THE OCCUPATION OF JAPAN  Japan was occupied by U.S. forces under the command of General MacArthur  During the seven- year occupation, MacArthur reshaped Japan’s economy by introducing free-market practices that led to a remarkable economic recovery  Additionally, he introduced a liberal constitution that to this day is called the MacArthur Constitution

97 Section Four: Objectives  By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:  1. Describe the economic and social changes that reshaped American life during World War II.  2. Summarize both the opportunities and the discrimination African Americans and other minorities experienced during the war.

98 Section Four: The Home Front  Main Idea: After World War II, Americans adjusted to new economic opportunities and harsh social tensions.  Why it Matters Now: Economic opportunities afforded by World War II led to a more diverse middle class in the United States.  Key Terms:  GI Bill of Rights  James Farmer  Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)  Key Terms:  Internment  Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)

99 SECTION 4: THE HOME FRONT  The war provided a lift to the U.S. economy  Jobs were abundant and despite rationing and shortages, people had money to spend  By the end of the war, America was the world’s dominant economic and military power

100 ECONOMIC GAINS  Unemployment fell to only 1.2% by 1944 and wages rose 35%  Farmers too benefited as production doubled and income tripled

101 WOMEN MAKE GAINS  Women enjoyed economic gains during the war, although many lost their jobs after the war  Over 6 million women entered the work force for the first time  Over 1/3 were in the defense industry

102 POPULATION SHIFTS  The war triggered the greatest mass migration in American history  More than a million newcomers poured into California between  African Americans again shifted from south to north

103 GI BILL HELPS RETURNING VETS  To help returning servicemen ease back into civilian life, Congress passed the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights)  The act provided education for 7.8 million vets

104 INTERNMENT OF JAPANESE AMERICANS  When the war began, 120,000 Japanese Americans lived in the U.S. – mostly on the West Coast  After Pearl Harbor, many people were suspicious of possible spy activity by Japanese Americans  In 1942, FDR ordered Japanese Americans into 10 relocation centers Japanese Americans felt the sting of discrimination during WWII

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106 Location of the 10 Internment camps

107 Jerome camp in Arkansas

108 U.S. PAYS REPARATIONS TO JAPANESE  In the late 1980s, President Reagan signed into law a bill that provided $20,000 to every Japanese American sent to a relocation camp  The checks were sent out in 1990 along with a note from President Bush saying, “We can never fully right the wrongs of the past... we now recognize that serious wrongs were done to Japanese Americans during WWII.” Today the U.S. is home to more than 1,000,000 Japanese- Americans

109 Nearly 59 years after the end of World War II, the National World War II Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C., on Saturday, May 29, 2004 to honor the 408,680 Americans who died in the conflict

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