2The Mood of the 1950sAfter WWII, many Americans were blessed with wealth, success, and leisure.Conformity seemed the order of the day.Even the suits were the same!The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit
3The American DreamThe ‘American Dream’ came true for many people in the postwar yearsFor millions of Americans the 1950’s meant peace and prosperityAmerican life was characterized by a home in the suburbs and a car in the garageHowever, this high standard put pressure on many Americans to live up to the ‘Joneses’Father Knows Best
4Technology Transforms Life TelevisionComputers-transistorsNuclear PowerAdvances in Medicine
5GI Bill Formally known as the “Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944” Offered low interest loans for new homesWWII veterans benefited from the legislationCreated a new phenomenaSuburbia
6Changes in the Workforce By 1956 a majority of American workers held white-collar jobsGrowth of the service industryBlue-collar workers saw improved working conditionsAmerican Federation of Labor and Congress of industrial Organizations merged into the AFL-CIO
7Consumer Credit Grows Credit cards, used to charge goods and services Diner’s Club, 1950American expressBankAmericard (VISA)
8Challenges to Conformity Music: Rock and Roll – Elvis PresleyFilms: Rebel Without a CauseBooks: The Catcher in the RyeThe “Beat Generation”
10The Beat GenerationThe Beat movement began in the early 1950's with a small and tightly connected group of young writers who demonstrated a care-free, often reckless and unquestionably fresh approach to literature as well as a demonstrative social stance toward what was sometimes referred to as "The EstablishmentThe term "beat" bears connotations of down-beat, worn out, down-and-out, drop-out and beatitude.
11Who were the “Beats”?The term “Beat” was reportedly coined by Jack Kerouac in the late 's, but became more common at about the time that writers like himself, Allen Ginsberg and Lawrence Ferlinghetti were beginning to get noticed.The term ‘beat’ soon gave this generation with a definitive label for their personal and social positions and perspectives.The most famous book by a Beat poet was On the Road by Jack Kerouac.
12Beat PoetryThe Beat Generation's poems had 5 major themes, or big ideas the poets thought were important.·Rebellion/revolution·Not fitting in/being on the fringe of society·Exploration of self·Exploration of words & ideas·Search for enlightenment
13“Domestic Politics and Policy” Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower used two different styles of leadership.
14Election of 1948 Election of 1948 – Truman defeats Thomas E. Dewey Had to deal with a Republican CongressThe nation moved to a peacetime economy
15The Fair DealThe Fair Deal was the policy of social improvement of President Truman he outlined in his 1949 State of the Union AddressIt was an ambitious social and economic program concerning:economic securityConservationhousingCivil rightsHealth insuranceEducationAnd agriculture subsides
16The Taft-Hartley Act -1947The Taft-Hartley Act amended the Wagner Act which Congress had passed in during the New Deal in 1935.It severely restricted the activities and power of labor unions in the USstill largely in effect today
17Dwight Eisenhower WWII hero and talented diplomat Modern Republicanism – “conservative when it comes to money, liberal when it comes to human beings.”Chose Richard Nixon’s as his VPCheckers SpeechWins election in 1952 and 1956
18Technology Challenge Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957 Americans afraid of nuclear attackNational Defense Education Act of 1958Funded math and science classes for American studentsTitle II fundsStill available today
21“Demands for Civil Rights” Following WWII, African Americans began to push harder in the civil rights movement and brought about significant results.
22The Struggle for Equality Truman supported civil rightsCongress refused to actTruman ended discrimination in hiring federal employeesTruman ordered an end to segregation in the armed forces
23The Struggle for Equality Jackie Robinson – first African American in pro baseballPlayed for the Brooklyn Dodgers1947, league’s most valuable playerOpened the way for other African American athletes
24Brown v. Board of Education May 1954 Supreme Court declared that “separate but equal” was no longer permissible in public education“separate facilities are inherently unequal”Struck down Plessy v. Ferguson , 1896
25Little Rock 1957 Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas The Governor posted National Guard to keep African American students outEisenhower sent soldiers to protect the nine students
26Montgomery Bus Boycott In 1955 Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white manBoycott – African Americans did not ride the bus system until segregation on buses changedMartin Luther King, Jr. became spokespersonSupreme Court ruled bus segregation illegal
34Businesses Reorganize Ray Crocand theFirst MacDonald'sBusinesses ReorganizePer capita income, the average income per person, increased from $1,526 to $2,788Conglomerates, a large corporation that owns many smaller companies that produce entirely different goods and servicesFranchises, the right to open a restaurant using a parent company’s brand name and system