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What were the long-term consequences of the Berlin Airlift and the Marshall Plan?

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Presentation on theme: "What were the long-term consequences of the Berlin Airlift and the Marshall Plan?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What were the long-term consequences of the Berlin Airlift and the Marshall Plan?

2 QUIZ 1.SPELL A______ 2.Who was the leader of the Chinese Nationalists? 3.What does HUAC stand for? 4.What does NATO stand for? 5.Who did President Truman fire for insubordination?

3 Map: Divided Europe

4 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) 1948: Alliance b/w UK, France, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg 1949: NATO treaty signed, US joins 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany SIGNIFICANCE: US NOW PLEDGED TO AN “ENTANGLING” ALLINCE

5 BATTLE FOR CHINA Jiang Jieshi (AKA Chiang Kai Check) vs. Mao Tse Tung Why did Mao and the Communist prevail? What were the consequences for the US internationally? What were the consequences for the US domestically?

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7 Red Scare, McCarthysism, & HUAC ( House Un-American Activities Committee) Americans fear the global spread of communism 1947 Truman launches “loyalty” program 1948 Richard Nixon uses HUAC to “expose” Alger Hiss as a communist agent 1950 Senator McCarthy charges Dept. of State of being “infiltrated” with communists 1950 Truman vetoes McCarran Internal Security Bill 1951 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed for espionage 1951 Denis v. US, Supreme Court upholds sending 11 communists to prison for sedition

8 Communist hysteria in the media: Red Menace poster Although Hollywood generally avoided overtly political films, it released a few dozen explicitly anticommunist films in the postwar era. Depicting American communists as vicious hypocrites, if not hardened criminals, Hollywood's Cold War movies, like its blacklist, were an effort to protect its imperiled public image after HUAC's widely publicized investigation of the movie industry. (The Michael Barson Collection/Past Perfect) Communist hysteria in the media: Red Menace poster Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

9 Girl in front of dome atomic bomb shelter As the Cold War intensified and the Soviets became a nuclear power, the government began to consider methods to survive a nuclear war. One "solution" was to encourage people to build backyard bomb shelters. Pictured here is one family's atomic bomb shelter that slept six. The cost was $1,250 in (Corbis-Bettmann) Girl in front of dome atomic bomb shelter Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. SOVIETS TEST THEIR FIRST H-BOMB IN 1953

10 Election of 1948 TRUMAN V. DEWEY (v. WALLACE???) Dewey runs for Republicans. CAMPAIGN: against “High Tax Harry” & “Our Future Lies Before Us” Truman’s nomination splits Democrats. CAMPAIGN: Civil Rights, Labor benefits, health insurance Wallace runs for South and progressive/peace camp. CAMPAIGN: against “dollar imperialism” RESULT: Surprise win for Truman. Democrats also win back control of Congress.

11 Map: Presidential Election, 1948 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

12 Truman with "Dewey Defeats Truman" headlines, 1948 So few pollsters predicted that President Harry S. Truman (1884–1972) would win the 1948 presidential election that the Chicago Tribune announced his defeat before all the returns were in. Here a victorious Truman pokes fun at the newspaper for its premature headline. (Corbis-Bettmann) Truman with "Dewey Defeats Truman" headlines, 1948 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

13 COLD WAR HEATS UP… KOREA 1950 USSR backs Northern Communists US backs Southern Democrats Election results in N and S differ (surprise!!!) June 25, 1950 N invades S, crosses 38 th parallel First big test of Truman’s “containment doctrine” NSC-68: US increases defense $ by factor of 4 UN declares Korea a “police action” and Security Council condemns invasion UN and US send troops to support South

14 Map: The Korean War, The Korean War, Beginning as a civil war between North and South Korea, this war became international when the United States, under the auspices of the United Nations, and the People's Republic of China intervened with their military forces. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

15 Korean War The Korean War was one of ebb and flow, advances and retreats--the movement of troops up and down the rugged Korean peninsula. Here, American troops advance while Korean women and children march in the opposite direction hoping to avoid the destruction of war. Over 33,000 Americans lost their lives in Korea during the conflict. (Corbis- Bettmann) Korean War Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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17 KOREA  MEGALOMANIA? MacArthur, Kim Il Sung, Kim Jong Il

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20 Soldiers of 11th Airborne Division watch atomic bomb explosion, 1951 tests in Nevada Soldiers of the 11th Airborne Division watch as an atomic explosion mushrooms into the sky during 1951 testing maneuvers in Nevada. ((c) Bettmann/Corbis) Soldiers of 11th Airborne Division watch atomic bomb explosion, 1951 tests in Nevada Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

21 MacDonald, Weizmann, and Ben-Gurion America's first ambassador to Israel, James G. MacDonald ( ) (left) meets in 1948 with Israel's President Chaim Weizmann ( ) (right). The historian Michelle Mart has written that "Jews in the postwar world first symbolized a complete lack of masculinity for their role as victims and then masculine resurgence in their survival and construction of a new state"--a change in the image that conditioned American leaders to respect the new Israeli leaders. (National Archives) MacDonald, Weizmann, and Ben-Gurion Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

22 New West: Wing production on the Boeing B-52 assembly line, Seattle, 1950s Symbolic of the defense spending and investment that helped the West's economy flourish, Seattle's Boeing plant in 1951 began production of the first of the B-52 Stratofortress heavy bombers. They would continue rolling off the Boeing assembly line until the end of the decade. (Courtesy Boeing Defense & Space Group) New West: Wing production on the Boeing B-52 assembly line, Seattle, 1950s Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

23 Map: End of the Cold War End of the Cold War When Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union in 1985, he initiated reforms that ultimately undermined the communist regimes in eastern Europe and East Germany and led to the breakup of the Soviet Union itself, ensuring an end to the Cold War. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


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