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APUSH: Chapter 36: The Cold War Begins

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1 APUSH: Chapter 36: The Cold War Begins

2 What Is The Cold War? Intense rivalry between the U.S. & Soviet Union

3 Essential Question 1. What were the origins and developments of the cold war?

4 Origins of The Cold War:
1. Ideological Differences: Communism vs. Capitalism (economic, political, philosophical disputes) 2. Competition for global power & Influence 3. Mutual Distrust 4. Atomic Weapons – “Arms Race”

5 American Presidents – Cold War
1. Harry Truman 2. Dwight D. Eisenhower 3. John F. Kennedy 1960-

6 Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)_

7 United Nations Charter of United Nations (1945)
1. “maintenance of international peace and security” 2. 5 permanent members U.S., Soviet Union, Britain, France, China 3. 15 members in total

8 Origins of Cold War (after WWII)
1. Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) Established Spheres of Influence In Eastern Europe

9 Origins of Cold War 2. Eastern European nations Became Soviet “satellites” ( ) 3. Soviets refused to sign plan eliminating atomic weapons

10 Origins of Cold War 4. Soviets refused to allow free elections in Eastern Europe 5. Stalin hoped to establish “communist block” clear violation of war conference agreements

11 Winston Churchill : “An iron curtain has descended across Europe”

12 Policy of Containment President Truman interested in “containing communism from spreading” Possible Soviet domination a threat to U.S. Truman Doctrine (1947): funding to assist countries in repelling a possible communist take over

13 Marshall Plan A Plan to re-build war torn Western Europe
$3 billion over 4 yr period Proposed by: George Marshall, U.S. Secretary of State

14 Berlin Airlift, 1948 Joseph Stalin
Cut off city of Berlin from Western contact Blocked all routes into Berlin with Soviet troops Why? tired of U.S. intrusion in European affairs

15 Berlin Blockade, 1948

16 Berlin Airlift, 1948 American planes delivered supplies to city
For 11 months

17 Berlin Airlift- American “Candy Bombers”
American servicemen Flew over Berlin and dropped candy for city’s children

18 Alliances… President Truman joined alliance with W. European countries, Canada, Iceland NATO –North Atlantic treaty organization

19 Alliances… Stalin’s response: Warsaw Pact – 1955
Communist Eastern European military alliance Once a member, a nation can NEVER leave!

20 The Atomic Race Begins Superior large scale weapons
Soviet Union exploded first A- Bomb 1949 1952 U.S. developed Hydrogen bomb 1,000 X’s stronger than A-bomb

21 U.S. Domestic Policy 1. National Security Act (1947)- created the Department of Defense, the National Security Council, and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 2. NSC-68- secret document discussed Soviet plans for world domination, encouraged U.S. to build up military

22 Containment in Asia China “fell” to communism 1949
1950 Mao Tse- Tung and Joseph Stalin signed pact 2 large nations = “communist block”

23 Korean War 1945 Allies divided Korea
Border between North & South 38th Parallel North Korea = communist China and Soviet Union supplied weapons

24 Korean War N. Korea invaded South Korea, June 1950
U.S. authorized “police action” of military force to liberate South Korea Conflict ended in “stalemate”

25 Dwight D. Eisenhower Became President, 1952
American foreign policy : He would support nations who sought liberation from communism

26 Eisenhower’s Policies
1. “brinkmanship” – U.S. would push aggressor nation to the “brink “of nuclear war, forcing them to back down 2. “massive retaliation” – U.S. would release arsenal of nuclear weapons on any threat

27 Geneva Convention, 1954 French lost colonies in Indochina
Geneva Convention agreed to split up territory: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia Divided Vietnam into communist north, anti-communist south

28 Eisenhower Doctrine, 1957 Policy designed to counter Soviet influence in the Middle East by offering military aid to those countries seeking help from resisting Communist aggression

29 Joseph Stalin died, 1953 Nikita Krushchev took over Soviet Union
1958 demanded removal of westerners from Berlin Eisenhower called meeting…

30 Tense Times… Soviets discovered American U-2 spy plane
And it was shot down 2 weeks before meeting…

31 John F. Kennedy Elected President 1960 Defeated Richard Nixon

32 Berlin Wall Soviets began construction, 1961
To prevent East Berliners from escaping to West

33 President Kennedy Traveled to Berlin, 1963 Did not stop construction
Proclaimed support for people in Berlin "Ich bin ein Berliner."

34 Castro Communizes Cuba
Dictator Batista overthrown by Fidel Castro 1959 Established communist state Asked Soviets for Help U.S. cut off diplomatic relations w/ Castro

35 Bay of Pigs April 1961 U.S. planned Invasion of Cuba
Attempt to overthrow Castro Failure Embarrassment to President Kennedy

36 Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 Fidel Castro & Khrushchev joined forces
U.S. spy plane discovered Building of nuclear missile sites in Cuba

37 Kennedy Ordered … Removal of missiles
U.S. enacted naval blockade against Cuba Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles if… U.S. agreed never to invade Cuba again , and remove their missiles from Turkey

38 American Espionage “ Red Scare”
Fear of spies in the U.S. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg – accused of delivering atomic secrets to Soviets Convicted of treason & espionage 1951 Sentenced to death

39 Senator Joseph McCarthy
Wanted to uncover & prosecute American Communists Used media to his advantage His accusations mostly false Hearings televised Modern day “witch hunt” .

40 Living in Fear… Threat of nuclear war Bomb shelters
People purchased canned goods/water “duck and cover” drills in schools

41 Living In Fear… The National Highway Act 1956
Created interstate freeway system 42,000 miles of road

42 Interstate Highways… Meant to provide : quick evacuation , emergency landing of planes, transport of missiles

43 Space Race 1. Russian Space Satellite Sputnik launched 1957
2. U.S. created National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 1958 Congress allocated millions to better prepare students in math, science, foreign languages

44 Cause of Cold WAR? View #1: Stalin wanted world domination, U.S. had no choice but to defend democratic, capitalist values. View #2: Truman adopted an aggressive foreign policy, and sought to create American spheres of influence throughout world

45 Chapter 37: The Eisenhower Era 1952-1960
Popular Culture & American Society in the 1950’s

46 1950’s Popular Culture

47 Servicemen’s Re-adjustment Act, 1944
Also known as the “G.I.” Bill Huge impact on American society & economy in the 1950’s Opportunities for WWII Veterans

48 G.I. Bill Offered… 1. University education 2. Vocational Training
3. Small business loans 3. Home loans

49 Universities Award 2x’s as many degrees in 1950 as opposed to 1940
8 million vets used G.I. funds to attend Colleges &Universities

50 1950’s Prosperity Credit Cards: Diner’s Club, American Express, 1958
Low interest home loans

51 Who is the 1950’s The Middle Class?
1. At least some college education 2. Men work – white collar jobs, or blue collar management 3. Own 2 cars 4. Own suburban home 5. Stay at home wife, 2 kids 6. mostly white

52 “Auto Mania” Cars Facilitate movement
85% of homes built in 1950’s built in the suburbs.

53 Growth of Suburbs Tract homes built en masse in the 1950’s
“Levittowns”- emerged (planned communities in suburbs) Levitt Construction company- east coast

54 Growth of Suburbs Average home price 1950’s: $11,500 - $14,500

55 Lakewood, Ca- 1st Planned Community in L.A.

56 Lakewood, Ca- 1st Planned Community in L.A.

57 “White Flight” White, middle class Moved to suburbs
Loans denied to minorities 60% of Americans owned homes by end of 50’s

58 National Highway Act 1956 “Interstate” Highways unified nation
$40 billion 41,000 mile construction project

59 Popular Culture Along Highways
The emergence of fast food chains, motels, shopping malls

60 Baby Boom 50-75 million babies born between 1946-1964
“at home” mothers depicted in popular culture

61 Women in the 1950’s 1950’s Middle Class ideal: stay at home mom
Husband earns enough money so wife does not have to work

62 Television Culture 9 in 10 homes had T.V. sets by 1960
Facilitated the spread of “fads”

63 1950’s Fads Hula Hoops! Records! Barbie! Telephone booth stuffing!

64 Rock N’ Roll Term coined by DJ Alan Freed 1951 Controversial
Society concerned about teenagers

65 Rebellious Youth in Film
James Dean - “Rebel Without a Cause” (1955) Marlon Brando – “ The Wild One” (1954)

66 Disneyland Opened in Anaheim, CA 1955 Price of admission: $1

67 The Construction of Disneyland…
Does Disneyland represent the social idealism of the 1950’s??

68 Poverty and Urban Blight
By 1960, 35 million people lived below poverty line Inner city deteriorated into slums Reality of the ignored

69 1950’s Reality: 1. Racism, discrimination, segregation
2. Popular Culture depicts white middle class experience 3. Poverty, urban blight, inequality


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