Presentation on theme: "Post World War 2 Rise of the Cold War. After World War II Germany was divided into military zones. Germany was divided into East and West Germany British,"— Presentation transcript:
Post World War 2 Rise of the Cold War
After World War II Germany was divided into military zones. Germany was divided into East and West Germany British, American, French controlled the West USSR controlled the East The city of Berlin was also divided the same way
Conferences Tehran Conference- Set out the strategy for the defeat of Germany. Carry on a two front war Great Britain and US from the West and USSR from the East
Conferences Yalta Conference- The Big Three decided to split Germany and Austria into zones of occupation. Also divide Vienna and Berlin
Post-War occupation of Japan was led by General MacArthur. economy was devastated Shortages After World War II
Conflicting Goals Potsdam Conference (1945) - This was the start of the Cold War when Joseph Stalin refused free elections in Eastern Europe. US Goals: 1. Encourage self-determination 2. Gain access to materials and markets (globally) 3. Rebuild Europe 4. Reunite Germany 5. Stop the spread of Communism
Conflicting Goals USSR Goals: 1. Encourage Communism 2. Rebuild their own economy using the countries of Eastern Europe 3. Maintain control of Eastern Europe (Satellite Nations) Keep Germany divided so they are never a threat again. The two super powers will never fight, but they will use other countries as battle grounds - Cuba, Korea, Vietnam, Latin America, and the Middle East.
Europe after WWII United Nations 1. Created in 1945 after WWII to replace League of Nations which was ineffective 2. Goals of UN: to promote cooperation in international law, security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and world peace. Based on the Atlantic Charter 3. Security Council Maintain peace and security among countries.
United Nations Security Council made up of 5 permanent member nations: US, GB, France, China, Soviet Union. 10 rotating temporary members that spend two years in the position elected form the General Assembly. General Assembly- member nations. All members have the same rights and voting power. GA elect the secretary-general and the judges for the International Court of Justice.
Europe after WWII Iron Curtain Soviet Union took control of all of Eastern Europe Winston Churchill described the situation as an “iron curtain descending across the continent of Europe.”
The New US foreign policy Containment (1946) - 1. The policy developed by U.S. Ambassador George Kennan, stated: a. Eastern Europe is already lost to Communism so we should keep it there. b. U.S. should prevent the spread of communism.
Truman Doctrine (1947)- the U.S. took over a leadership role in world by supporting countries threatened by communism. $400 million to help Greece and Turkey to get the economies running again and to stop rebellions in the countries. This was an effort to stop communist aggression and advancement Part of the containment policy Truman Doctrine
Marshall Plan ( ) - Created be President Truman’s Secretary of State : George Marshall Provided $13 billion in aid to Western European countries. Also offered to the Soviet Union and Eastern European Countries under Soviet control. (refused) The economy of all countries grew, output rose 35% Helped the US by supplying export goods to European countries. Marshall Plan
COMECON USSR created COMECON- Council for Mutual Assistance to help economies of Eastern Europe. Failed because the USSR could not fund the program adequately
At the Yalta Conference, US/USSR/France/Britain agreed to occupy the city of Berlin in East Germany. In 1948, the 3 western zones of Berlin merged and with the Marshall plan became very prosperous. a. The poverty of East Berlin became an embarrassment for Stalin. Berlin Airlift: June May 1949
Stalin blockaded the city of Berlin by not letting Allied convoys into the city through Soviet-controlled part of Germany. Stalin was attempting to force the Allies out of Berlin President Truman decided to airlift supplies to the people of Berlin. 2.2 million tons of supplies - everyday for 327 days. A total of 227,000 flights Berlin Airlift: June May 1949
US created NATO (North Atlantic Trade Organization) 1949 The US, Canada and 9 Western European countries promised collective security for each other to defend against Soviet aggression. Warsaw Pact (1955) - Soviet Response - linked them with Eastern Europe. Alliances
Communism in China ( ) Following the Chinese Civil War Mao Zedong and the communists overthrew Chiang Kai-Shek and the Nationalists. Mao was a follower of Karl Marx
Domino Theory - If one nation falls to communism, how many will follow.
Harry Truman 1945 – WWII ends with Truman’s decision to drop atomic bomb on Japan - The United Nations is created – Churchill claimed an Iron Curtain has descended upon Europe 1947 – Truman Doctrine aid is aimed at saving Greece & Turkey- part of the containment policy of the United States against communism. $400 million to the two countries – U.S.S.R. cuts off supply route to West Berlin in an effort to get the Allies out of East Germany. The U.S. responds by airlifting supplies to West Berlin. - Marshall Plan- $13 Billion in aid to help rebuild Western Europe
Truman 1949 – U.S.S.R. detonates their first hydrogen bomb as a show of force against the U. S. – Civil War in China turns most populous country into a Communist Nation – N.A.T.O. is created as a military alliance. US, Canada, and 9 Western European nations – Korean Conflict begins; as a result United Nations police action begins to defend S. Korea - Sen. Joseph McCarthy claims communists have infested the government, starts 2 nd Red Scare in the US – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are tried and sentenced for providing nuclear secrets to the Soviets. They were executed in 1953
Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953 – Stalin dies. Nikita Khrushchev becomes General Secretary – Korean Conflict ends in a stalemate. The two Koreas are divided at the 38 th parallel 1954 – S.E.A.T.O. forms to protect Southeast Asia 1955 – Mutually Assured Destruction or MAD Plan introduced by John Foster Dulles – S.U. creates Warsaw Pact to offset NATO 1956 – Nikita Khrushchev proposes idea of “peaceful coexistence” between the US and Soviet Union
Dwight D. Eisenhower 1957 – Sputnik launches the U.S. & Soviets into a space race. – Eisenhower Doctrine is offered to Middle East countries 1959 – Communist dictator Fidel Castro (Cuba), takes power and seizes all US assets and priv. property 1960 – Francis Gary Powers is shot down in his U-2 spy plane over U.S.S.R.