2The city of Berlin was also After World War IIGermany was divided into military zones. Germany was divided into East and West Germany British, American, French controlled the West USSR controlled the EastThe city of Berlin was alsodivided the same way
3ConferencesTehran Conference- Set out the strategy for the defeat of Germany.Carry on a two front war Great Britain and US from the West and USSR from the East
4ConferencesYalta Conference- The Big Three decided to split Germany and Austria into zones of occupation.Also divide Vienna and Berlin
5After World War II Post-War occupation of Japan was led by General MacArthur.economy was devastatedShortages
6Conflicting GoalsPotsdam Conference (1945) - This was the start of the Cold War when Joseph Stalin refused free elections in Eastern Europe.US Goals:1. Encourage self-determination2. Gain access to materials and markets (globally)3. Rebuild Europe4. Reunite Germany5. Stop the spread of Communism
7Conflicting Goals USSR Goals: 1. Encourage Communism 2. Rebuild their own economy using the countries of Eastern Europe3. Maintain control of Eastern Europe (Satellite Nations)Keep Germany divided so they are never a threat again.The two super powers will never fight, but they will use other countries as battle grounds - Cuba, Korea, Vietnam, Latin America, and the Middle East.
8Europe after WWII United Nations 1. Created in 1945 after WWII to replace League of Nations which wasineffective2. Goals of UN: to promote cooperation in international law, security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and world peace.Based on the Atlantic Charter3. Security CouncilMaintain peace and security among countries.
9United NationsSecurity Council made up of 5 permanent member nations: US, GB, France, China, Soviet Union. 10 rotating temporary members that spend two years in the position elected form the General Assembly.General Assembly- member nations. All members have the same rights and voting power.GA elect the secretary-general and the judges for the International Court of Justice.
10Europe after WWII Iron Curtain Soviet Union took control of all of Eastern EuropeWinston Churchill described the situation as an “iron curtain descending across the continent of Europe.”
12The New US foreign policy Containment (1946) -1. The policy developed by U.S. Ambassador George Kennan, stated:a. Eastern Europe is already lost to Communism so we should keep it there.b. U.S. should prevent the spread of communism.
13Truman Doctrine Truman Doctrine (1947)- the U.S. took over a leadership role in world by supporting countries threatened by communism.$400 million to help Greece and Turkey to get the economies running again and to stop rebellions in the countries. This was an effort to stop communist aggression and advancementPart of the containment policy
14Marshall Plan Marshall Plan (1947 - 1952) - Created be President Truman’s Secretary of State :George MarshallProvided $13 billion in aid to Western Europeancountries. Also offered to the Soviet Union and EasternEuropean Countries under Soviet control. (refused)The economy of all countries grew, output rose 35%Helped the US by supplying export goods to European countries.
15COMECONUSSR created COMECON- Council for Mutual Assistance to help economies of Eastern Europe.Failed because the USSR could not fund the program adequately
16Berlin Airlift: June 1948 - May 1949 At the Yalta Conference, US/USSR/France/Britain agreed to occupy the city of Berlin in East Germany.In 1948, the 3 western zones of Berlin merged and with the Marshall plan became very prosperous.a. The poverty of East Berlin became an embarrassment for Stalin.
17Berlin Airlift: June 1948 - May 1949 Stalin blockaded the city of Berlin by not letting Allied convoys into the city through Soviet-controlled part of Germany.Stalin was attempting to force the Allies out of BerlinPresident Truman decided to airlift supplies to the people of Berlin.2.2 million tons of supplies - everyday for 327 days. A total of 227,000 flights
18Alliances US created NATO (North Atlantic Trade Organization) 1949 The US, Canada and 9 Western European countries promised collective security for each other to defend against Soviet aggression.Warsaw Pact (1955) - Soviet Response - linked them with Eastern Europe.
19Communism in China ( )Following the Chinese Civil War Mao Zedong and the communists overthrew Chiang Kai-Shek and the Nationalists.Mao was a follower of Karl Marx
20Domino Theory - If one nation falls to communism, how many will follow.
21Harry Truman - The United Nations is created. 1945 – WWII ends with Truman’s decision to drop atomic bomb on Japan- The United Nations is created.1946 – Churchill claimed an Iron Curtain has descended upon Europe1947 – Truman Doctrine aid is aimed at saving Greece & Turkey- part of the containment policy of the United States against communism. $400 million to the two countries.1948 – U.S.S.R. cuts off supply route to West Berlin in an effort to get the Allies out of East Germany. The U.S. responds by airlifting supplies to West Berlin.- Marshall Plan- $13 Billion in aid to help rebuild Western Europe
22Truman1949 – U.S.S.R. detonates their first hydrogen bomb as a show of force against the U. S.– Civil War in China turns most populous country into a Communist Nation– N.A.T.O. is created as a military alliance. US, Canada, and 9 Western European nations.1950 – Korean Conflict begins; as a result United Nations police action begins to defend S. KoreaSen. Joseph McCarthy claims communists have infested the government, starts 2nd Red Scare in the US.1951 – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are tried and sentenced for providing nuclear secrets to the Soviets. They were executed in 1953
23Dwight D. Eisenhower1953 – Stalin dies. Nikita Khrushchev becomes General Secretary– Korean Conflict ends in a stalemate. The two Koreas are divided at the 38th parallel1954 – S.E.A.T.O. forms to protect Southeast Asia1955 – Mutually Assured Destruction or MAD Plan introduced by John Foster Dulles– S.U. creates Warsaw Pact to offset NATO1956 – Nikita Khrushchev proposes idea of “peaceful coexistence” between the US and Soviet Union
24Dwight D. Eisenhower1957 – Sputnik launches the U.S. & Soviets into a space race.– Eisenhower Doctrine is offered to Middle East countries1959 – Communist dictator Fidel Castro (Cuba), takes power and seizes all US assets and priv. property1960 – Francis Gary Powers is shot down in his U-2 spy plane over U.S.S.R.