2Core Case Study: Environmental Effects of Gold Mining Gold producersSouth AfricaAustraliaUnited StatesCanadaCyanide heap leachingExtremely toxic to birds and mammals2000: Collapse of a dam retaining a cyanide leach pondImpact on organisms and the environment
14The San Andreas Fault as It Crosses Part of the Carrizo Plain in California, U.S.
15Some Parts of the Earth’s Surface Build Up and Some Wear Down Internal geologic processesGenerally build up the earth’s surfaceExternal geologic processesWeatheringPhysical, Chemical, and BiologicalErosionWindFlowing waterHuman activitiesGlaciers
16Weathering: Biological, Chemical, and Physical Processes
17Volcanoes Release Molten Rock from the Earth’s Interior FissureMagmaLava1980: Eruption of Mount St. Helens1991: Eruption of Mount PinatuboBenefits of volcanic activity
18Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and-Roll Events seismic wave, focus vs epicenter, magnitude amplitudeRichter scaleInsignificant: <4.0Minor: 4.0–4.9Damaging: 5.0–5.9Destructive: 6.0–6.9Major: 7.0–7.9Great: >8.0
19Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and-Roll Events Foreshocks and aftershocksPrimary effects of earthquakes
23Earthquakes on the Ocean Floor Can Cause Huge Waves Called Tsunamis Tsunami, tidal waveDetection of tsunamisDecember 2004: Indian Ocean tsunamiMagnitude of 9.15Role of coral reefs and mangrove forests in reducing death toll
24Formation of a Tsunami and Map of Affected Area of Dec 2004 Tsunami
25Shore near Gleebruk in Indonesia before and after the Tsunami on June 23, 2004
26Gravity and Earthquakes Can Cause Landslides Mass wastingSlow movementFast movementRockslidesAvalanchesMudslidesEffect of human activities on such geological events
27There Are Three Major Types of Rocks Earth’s crustComposed of minerals and rocksThree broad classes of rocks, based on formationSedimentarySandstoneShaleDolomiteLimestoneLigniteBituminous coal
28There Are Three Major Types of Rocks IgneousGraniteLava rockMetamorphicAnthraciteSlateMarble
29The Earth’s Rocks Are Recycled Very Slowly Rock cycleSlowest of the earth’s cyclic processes
30We Use a Variety of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Fossil fuelsMetallic mineralsNonmetallic mineralsOreHigh-grade oreLow-grade oreImportance and examples of nonrenewable metal and nonmetal mineral resources
31Mineral Use Has Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages of the processes of mining and converting minerals into useful productsDisadvantages
34Extracting, Processing, Using Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy Resources
35There Are Several Ways to Remove Mineral Deposits Surface miningShallow deposits removedSubsurface miningDeep deposits removedType of surface mining used depends onResourceLocal topography
36There Are Several Ways to Remove Mineral Deposits Types of surface miningOpen-pit miningStrip miningContour miningMountaintop removal
37Natural Capital Degradation: Contour Strip Mining Used in Hilly or Mountainous Region
38Natural Capital Degradation: Mountaintop Coal Mining in West Virginia, U.S.
39Mining Has Harmful Environmental Effects Scarring and disruption of the land surfaceE.g., spoils banksLoss of rivers and streamsSubsidenceMajor pollution of water and airEffect on aquatic lifeLarge amounts of solid wasteHabitable Planet
40Banks of Waste or Spoils Created by Coal Area Strip Mining in Colorado, U.S.
41Ecological Restoration of a Mining Site in New Jersey, U.S.
42Removing Metals from Ores Has Harmful Environmental Effects Ore extracted by miningOre mineralGangueSmeltingWater pollutionVideo clipLiquid and solid hazardous wastes producedUse of cyanide salt to extract gold from its oreSummitville gold mine: Colorado, U.S.
43Natural Capital Degradation: Summitville Gold Mining Site in Colorado, U.S.
44Mineral Resources Are Distributed Unevenly Most of the nonrenewable mineral resources supplied byUnited StatesCanadaRussiaSouth AfricaAustraliaStrategic metal resourcesManganese (Mn)Cobalt (Co)Chromium (Cr)Platinum (Pt)
45Solutions: Science Focus: The Nanotechnology Revolution Nanotechnology, tiny techNanoparticlesAre they safe?Investigate potential ecological, economic, health, and societal risksDevelop guidelines for their use until more is known about themNanotechnology
46Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Can Be Economically Depleted Future supply depends onActual or potential supply of the mineralRate at which it is usedWhen it becomes economically depletedRecycle or reuse existing suppliesWaste lessUse lessFind a substituteDo without
47Natural Capital Depletion: Depletion Curves for a Nonrenewable Resource
48Market Prices Affect Supplies of Nonrenewable Minerals Subsidies and tax breaks to mining companies keep mineral prices artificially lowDoes this promote economic growth and national security?Scarce investment capital hinders the development of new supplies of mineral resources
49Case Study: The U.S. General Mining Law of 1872 Encouraged mineral exploration and mining of hard-rock minerals on U.S. public landsDeveloped to encourage settling the West (1800s)Until 1995, land could be bought for 1872 pricesCompanies must pay for clean-up now
50Solutions: Is Mining Lower-Grade Ores the Answer? Factors that limit the mining of lower-grade oresIncreased cost of mining and processing larger volumes of oreAvailability of freshwaterEnvironmental impactImprove mining technologyUse microorganisms, in situSlow processWhat about genetic engineering of the microbes?
51Can We Extend Supplies by Getting More Minerals from the Ocean? Mineral resources dissolved in the ocean-low concentrationsDeposits of minerals in sediments along the shallow continental shelf and near shorelinesHydrothermal ore depositsMetals from the ocean floor: manganese nodulesEffect of mining on aquatic lifeEnvironmental impact
53Solutions: We Can Find Substitutes for Some Scarce Mineral Resources Materials revolutionNanotechnologySiliconHigh-strength plasticsDrawbacks?Substitution is not a cure-allPt: industrial catalystCr: essential ingredient of stainless steel
54We Can Recycle and Reuse Valuable Metals RecyclingLower environmental impact than mining and processing metals from oresReuse
55Solutions: There Are Many Ways to Use Mineral Resources More Sustainability How can we decrease our use and waste of mineral resources?Pollution and waste prevention programsPollution Prevention Pays (3P)Cleaner production
56Solutions: Case Study: Industrial Ecosystems: Copying Nature Mimic nature: recycle and reuse most minerals and chemicalsResource exchange websEcoindustrial parksIndustrial forms of biomimicryBenefits
57Solutions: An Industrial Ecosystem in Denmark Mimics Natural Food Web