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1 Preventing Slips, Trips and Falls in the Workplace It’s the sudden stop that hurts! Presents: Dan Paul, Sr. Loss Prevention Consultant.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Preventing Slips, Trips and Falls in the Workplace It’s the sudden stop that hurts! Presents: Dan Paul, Sr. Loss Prevention Consultant."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Preventing Slips, Trips and Falls in the Workplace It’s the sudden stop that hurts! Presents: Dan Paul, Sr. Loss Prevention Consultant

2 2 Slip, Trip and Fall Accident Facts Slips, trips and falls account for 15-20% of all workers’ compensation costs. Slips, trips and falls account for 15-20% of all workers’ compensation costs. Slips, trips and falls account for nearly 25% of all serious disabling work injuries. Slips, trips and falls account for nearly 25% of all serious disabling work injuries. The average direct cost of one disabling slip, trip and fall injury approaches $10,000. (Conservative estimates are that indirect costs may be as much as four times this amount) The average direct cost of one disabling slip, trip and fall injury approaches $10,000. (Conservative estimates are that indirect costs may be as much as four times this amount)

3 3 Slip, Trip and Fall Accident Facts Most injuries are sprains and strains Most injuries are sprains and strains The back is the most frequently injured part of the body. The back is the most frequently injured part of the body. Type of fall % Male% Female Same Level Falls 59% 41% Same Level Falls 59% 41% Falls From Elevation 79% 21% Falls From Elevation 79% 21%

4 4 Significance of Falls In 1998, falls accounted for: In 1998, falls accounted for: 16,274 deaths 16,274 deaths 37% of fatalities 37% of fatalities 16% of all work–related injuries in the United States 16% of all work–related injuries in the United States 11% of all low back pain claims and 12% of all low back pain costs were from same level slips & falls. 11% of all low back pain claims and 12% of all low back pain costs were from same level slips & falls.

5 5 Significance of Slips & Falls Workers’ Comp Claims Cost Frequency Workers’ Comp Claims Cost Frequency Manual Material Handling 34.8% 36.7% Manual Material Handling 34.8% 36.7% Slips & Falls – Same Level 13.4% 11.5% Slips & Falls – Same Level 13.4% 11.5% Slips & Falls – Elevation 10.0% 5.0% Slips & Falls – Elevation 10.0% 5.0% Struck By/Against 8.8% 16.7% Struck By/Against 8.8% 16.7% Repetitive Trauma 7.3% 4.5% Repetitive Trauma 7.3% 4.5% Motor Vehicle Accidents 6.2% 1.9% Motor Vehicle Accidents 6.2% 1.9% From Liberty Mutual Research Center for Safety & Health

6 6 Same Level Falls Types of same levels falls include: Types of same levels falls include: Slips and fall Slips and fall Trips and fall Trips and fall Step and fall Step and fall These type of falls occur during: These type of falls occur during: Routine walking Routine walking Walking on wet or slippery surfaces Walking on wet or slippery surfaces Material Handling Material Handling

7 7 Same Level Falls Same level falls are the most frequent to occur. Same level falls are the most frequent to occur. The injuries and costs associated with these incidents are not as great as for elevated falls. The injuries and costs associated with these incidents are not as great as for elevated falls. Parking lots account for 15% of all same level falls. Parking lots account for 15% of all same level falls. 60% of these falls are the result of walking on snow & ice. 60% of these falls are the result of walking on snow & ice.

8 8 Same Level Falls Same level falls are commonly caused by: Same level falls are commonly caused by: Walking to fast or running Walking to fast or running Rapid changes in direction Rapid changes in direction Wet or slippery conditions Wet or slippery conditions Not watching where we are going Not watching where we are going Inadequate housekeeping Inadequate housekeeping Carrying objects which obstruct our vision Carrying objects which obstruct our vision Inadequate lighting Inadequate lighting Failure to use handrails Failure to use handrails

9 9 Same Level Falls Common same level falls while working “outdoors” include: Common same level falls while working “outdoors” include: Falls while walking to and from buildings Falls while walking to and from buildings Falls while working on uneven surfaces Falls while working on uneven surfaces Falls while carrying freight Falls while carrying freight Falls while fueling vehicles and equipment Falls while fueling vehicles and equipment Falls during times of inclement weather Falls during times of inclement weather

10 10 Slip & Fall Slips and falls are primarily caused by a loss in the traction between the shoe and the walking surface. The center of gravity is thrown out of balance resulting in a fall. Slips and falls are primarily caused by a loss in the traction between the shoe and the walking surface. The center of gravity is thrown out of balance resulting in a fall. Slips and falls occur when: Slips and falls occur when: The front foot slips forward The front foot slips forward The rear foot slips backward The rear foot slips backward This is often compounded by wearing the wrong footwear.

11 11 Slip and Fall Micro slips – Are less than 3 centimeters in length. Occur frequently when we walk and usually go undetected. Micro slips – Are less than 3 centimeters in length. Occur frequently when we walk and usually go undetected. Slip – Are from 3-10 centimeters in length. We are aware of the slip and instinctively take corrective action. Slip – Are from 3-10 centimeters in length. We are aware of the slip and instinctively take corrective action. Slide – Are greater that 10 centimeters in length. Caused by uncontrolled forward, backward or sideways movement and leads to falls. Slide – Are greater that 10 centimeters in length. Caused by uncontrolled forward, backward or sideways movement and leads to falls.

12 12 Coefficient of Friction Coefficient of Friction (COF) is the amount of traction present between the footwear and the walking surface. Coefficient of Friction (COF) is the amount of traction present between the footwear and the walking surface. A COF of.40 to.50 is needed for good traction. A COF of.40 to.50 is needed for good traction. A brushed concrete floor and a rubber sole will often have a COF greater than 1.0 A brushed concrete floor and a rubber sole will often have a COF greater than 1.0 A smooth surface such as ice and a leather sole may have a COF as low as.10. A smooth surface such as ice and a leather sole may have a COF as low as.10.

13 13 Trip & Fall Trips and falls occur when the front foot strikes an object and suddenly stops. The upper body is thrown forward and a fall occurs. Trips and falls occur when the front foot strikes an object and suddenly stops. The upper body is thrown forward and a fall occurs. As little as 3/8” rise in a walkway can cause a person to “stub” their toe resulting in a trip and fall. As little as 3/8” rise in a walkway can cause a person to “stub” their toe resulting in a trip and fall.

14 14 Step & Fall Step and falls occur when the front foot lands on a surface that is lower than expected. This causes the body to be thrown forward, often resulting in a fall. Step and falls occur when the front foot lands on a surface that is lower than expected. This causes the body to be thrown forward, often resulting in a fall. They also occur when we step forward or down, and the side of the foot lands on an object higher than the other side. The ankle turns and we fall forward or sideways. They also occur when we step forward or down, and the side of the foot lands on an object higher than the other side. The ankle turns and we fall forward or sideways.

15 15 Routine Walking Slips and falls during routine walking occur when there is a loss in the traction between the shoe and the walking surface. Slips and falls during routine walking occur when there is a loss in the traction between the shoe and the walking surface. The primary key to preventing slips and falls during routine walking is to: The primary key to preventing slips and falls during routine walking is to: Wear appropriate footwear Wear appropriate footwear Observe the walking surface Observe the walking surface Identify potential hazards such as holes, rocks, ice, water, etc. and walk around them whenever possible. Identify potential hazards such as holes, rocks, ice, water, etc. and walk around them whenever possible.

16 16 Slippery Surfaces When surfaces such as mud, snow, ice, water, oil, etc. are present: When surfaces such as mud, snow, ice, water, oil, etc. are present: The COF is greatly reduced The COF is greatly reduced The likelihood of slips and falls is greatly increased, particularly on stairs, ramps, slopes, parking lots and steel. The likelihood of slips and falls is greatly increased, particularly on stairs, ramps, slopes, parking lots and steel. Tripping hazards may not be visible Tripping hazards may not be visible Ground imperfections can be hidden Ground imperfections can be hidden

17 17 Snow and Ice Do not take flat surfaces for granted: Do not take flat surfaces for granted: Accident studies indicate that almost 80% of slips and falls due to snow and ice occur in parking lots or sidewalks. Accident studies indicate that almost 80% of slips and falls due to snow and ice occur in parking lots or sidewalks. Be aware of your surroundings Be aware of your surroundings Sloped surfaces Sloped surfaces Roof drains Roof drains North side of buildings North side of buildings

18 18 Material Handling Employees who perform manual material handling tasks are exposed to not only back strains and sprains, but also slips, trips and falls. Employees who perform manual material handling tasks are exposed to not only back strains and sprains, but also slips, trips and falls. Slips, trips and falls can occur when: Slips, trips and falls can occur when: The freight being carried is so large it blocks your view The freight being carried is so large it blocks your view There is not a clear pathway to be traveled There is not a clear pathway to be traveled The walking surface is slippery or uneven The walking surface is slippery or uneven

19 19 Material Handling Falls associated with material handling include: Falls associated with material handling include: Falls on slick surfaces Falls on slick surfaces Falls from equipment Falls from equipment Falls from ladders Falls from ladders Falls from docks and elevated work platforms Falls from docks and elevated work platforms Falls on stairs Falls on stairs

20 20 Material Handling Use a hand cart or other mechanical device whenever possible. Use a hand cart or other mechanical device whenever possible. Carefully observe walking surfaces to identify any holes, raised elevations, sloping surfaces or slippery surfaces that may be present. Carefully observe walking surfaces to identify any holes, raised elevations, sloping surfaces or slippery surfaces that may be present. Do not carry loads that block your vision. Do not carry loads that block your vision.

21 21 Material Handling When using a cart to move material on ramps, push the cart up the ramp, and back the cart down the ramp. (It is more difficult to control a heavy load going down a ramp when you are above the load than when you are below the load) When using a cart to move material on ramps, push the cart up the ramp, and back the cart down the ramp. (It is more difficult to control a heavy load going down a ramp when you are above the load than when you are below the load) Take small steps rather than large ones, especially when working on slippery surfaces. Take small steps rather than large ones, especially when working on slippery surfaces.

22 22 Same Level Falls - Prevention Wear proper footwear Wear proper footwear Evaluate your path Evaluate your path Look for obstacles such as rocks, holes, oil, water, cords or other debris Look for obstacles such as rocks, holes, oil, water, cords or other debris Avoid walking to fast or running Avoid walking to fast or running Don’t carry objects that block your view Don’t carry objects that block your view Use hand rails when they are available Use hand rails when they are available

23 23 Elevated Falls Elevated falls do not occur as frequently as same level falls. The resulting injuries and costs are however, usually greater. Elevated falls do not occur as frequently as same level falls. The resulting injuries and costs are however, usually greater.

24 24 Elevated Falls Common elevated falls in the workplace include: Common elevated falls in the workplace include: Falls from vehicles and equipment Falls from vehicles and equipment Falls from ladders Falls from ladders Falls from docks and elevated work platforms Falls from docks and elevated work platforms Falls on stairs Falls on stairs

25 25 Falls From Equipment Accidents happen in four major ways. These include: Accidents happen in four major ways. These include: 1. Jumping from the equipment. 2. Losing balance when climbing onto or off of the equipment. 3. Slipping as weight is transferred when climbing onto or off of the equipment. 4. Packing or carrying items while climbing onto or off of the equipment.

26 26 Entering & Exiting Equipment When entering or exiting equipment you should: When entering or exiting equipment you should: Make sure the climbing and landing surfaces are not slippery or rough due to snow, ice, oil, potholes, rocks, etc. Make sure the climbing and landing surfaces are not slippery or rough due to snow, ice, oil, potholes, rocks, etc. Get a firm grip with your hand before stepping up (Not just your fingertips) Get a firm grip with your hand before stepping up (Not just your fingertips) Always face the vehicle (Climb out in the same manner you entered) Always face the vehicle (Climb out in the same manner you entered) Use the Three-Point System Use the Three-Point System

27 27 Three-Point System The Three-Point System ensures that: The Three-Point System ensures that: Three limbs are in contact with the vehicle or equipment at all times. Three limbs are in contact with the vehicle or equipment at all times. One hand and two feet, or One hand and two feet, or Two hands and one foot Two hands and one foot Allows for maximum stability and support Allows for maximum stability and support Should be used when climbing onto or off of any piece of equipment. Should be used when climbing onto or off of any piece of equipment.

28 28 Falls From Ladders Falls from ladders can usually be attributed to one of the following: Falls from ladders can usually be attributed to one of the following: Improper ladder placement Improper ladder placement Failure to secure the ladder Failure to secure the ladder Carrying materials Carrying materials Missing or damaged rungs Missing or damaged rungs Uneven ground or slippery surfaces Uneven ground or slippery surfaces Reaching too far Reaching too far Standing on the top rung Standing on the top rung

29 29 Falls From Ladders Prior to using a ladder you should: Prior to using a ladder you should: Inspect the ladder for cracks or loose rungs. Inspect the ladder for cracks or loose rungs. Ensure that feet are equipped with slip-resistant pads. Ensure that feet are equipped with slip-resistant pads. Set the base of the ladder firmly so that it cannot slip or settle into soft ground. (Straight ladders should be secured to the object supporting them) Set the base of the ladder firmly so that it cannot slip or settle into soft ground. (Straight ladders should be secured to the object supporting them) Set straight ladders at, or as near as, a 4:1 angle as possible. Set straight ladders at, or as near as, a 4:1 angle as possible.

30 30 Falls From Ladders When using a ladder you should: When using a ladder you should: Climb with both hands on the ladder. (Do not climb with objects in your hand) Climb with both hands on the ladder. (Do not climb with objects in your hand) Never stand on the top three rungs of a straight ladder or the top two steps of a step-ladder. Never stand on the top three rungs of a straight ladder or the top two steps of a step-ladder. Always face the ladder when climbing or descending. Always face the ladder when climbing or descending.

31 31 Falls From Docks & Elevated Work Platforms Common dock and elevated work platform hazards include: Common dock and elevated work platform hazards include: Slips and falls caused by wet or oily surfaces Slips and falls caused by wet or oily surfaces Falls from dock or platform edges Falls from dock or platform edges Falls caused by unsecured dock plates Falls caused by unsecured dock plates When working on docks and elevated work platforms, be aware of not only what you are doing, but what others around you are doing as well. When working on docks and elevated work platforms, be aware of not only what you are doing, but what others around you are doing as well.

32 32 Falls From Docks & Elevated work Platforms When working on loading docks, you should: When working on loading docks, you should: Walk, do not run Walk, do not run Stay away from dock or platform edges Stay away from dock or platform edges Be aware of others working in the area Be aware of others working in the area Secure moveable dock plates Secure moveable dock plates Not jump onto or off of the dock or platform Not jump onto or off of the dock or platform Not indulge in horseplay Not indulge in horseplay

33 33 Falls on Stairs Falls on stairs are usually associated with: Falls on stairs are usually associated with: Missing or defective handrails Missing or defective handrails Defective treads and risers Defective treads and risers Inappropriate tread width and riser height Inappropriate tread width and riser height Debris or liquid on treads Debris or liquid on treads Carrying materials while ascending or descending the stairs Carrying materials while ascending or descending the stairs Not using the handrail Not using the handrail

34 34 Falls on Stairs When using stairs: When using stairs: Use the handrail for support whenever possible. Use the handrail for support whenever possible. Never run up or down the stairs. Never run up or down the stairs. Don’t carry materials that block your view. Don’t carry materials that block your view. Don’t jump from stairs. Don’t jump from stairs. Avoid carrying heavy or bulky items that require the use of both hands, whenever possible. Avoid carrying heavy or bulky items that require the use of both hands, whenever possible.

35 35 Footwear Wear proper footwear. This means slip-resistant soles. Wear proper footwear. This means slip-resistant soles. Select shoes to fit the surface on which you are walking. Select shoes to fit the surface on which you are walking. The harder and smoother the bottom of the shoe, the more slippery it is. The harder and smoother the bottom of the shoe, the more slippery it is. Leather soles tend to be very slippery Leather soles tend to be very slippery Soft rubber soles generally provide better traction. Soft rubber soles generally provide better traction. When selecting work shoes, examine the coefficient of friction (COF) rating. When selecting work shoes, examine the coefficient of friction (COF) rating.

36 36 Review Slips, trips and falls account for 10-12% of all workers’ compensation costs? Slips, trips and falls account for 10-12% of all workers’ compensation costs? True True False False False: 15-20% of all workers’ compensation costs are related to slips, trips and falls.

37 37 Review Which body part is the most commonly injured due to slips, trips and falls? Which body part is the most commonly injured due to slips, trips and falls? A.Shoulder B.Knee C.Head D.None of the above D. None of the above – The back is the most commonly injured.

38 38 Review Elevated falls are the most frequent to occur? Elevated falls are the most frequent to occur? True True False False False: Same level falls are the most frequent to occur.

39 39 Review When handling freight, slips, trips and falls can occur when: When handling freight, slips, trips and falls can occur when: A. The freight being carried blocks your view B. There is not a clear path to be traveled C. The walking surface is slick or uneven D. All of the above D - All of the above

40 40 Review Elevated falls do not occur as frequently as same level falls but the resulting injuries are usually more severe. Elevated falls do not occur as frequently as same level falls but the resulting injuries are usually more severe. True True False False True – Fall from height injuries can lead to permanent disability or even death.

41 41 Review The Three-Point Rule should only be used during time of inclement weather? The Three-Point Rule should only be used during time of inclement weather? True True False False False – The Three-Point Rule should be used whenever you enter or exit equipment or vehicles.

42 42 Review Falls from ladders are commonly the result of: Falls from ladders are commonly the result of: A.Improper ladder placement B.Reaching too far C.Carrying materials D.All of the above

43 43 Review When using stairs you should: When using stairs you should: A. Use the handrail for support whenever possible B. Never run up or down the stairs C. Carry materials that block you view D. All of the above A and B – Use the handrail whenever possible and never run up or down the stairs

44 44 Review Which of the following is false? Which of the following is false? A. The harder and smoother the bottom of the shoe, the more slippery it is. B. Leather soles tend to provide good traction C. Soft rubber soles tend to provide the best traction D. All of the above B – Leather soles tend to be very slippery.

45 45 Review To reduce the chance of same level slips, trips and falls you should: To reduce the chance of same level slips, trips and falls you should: A.Inspect the walking surface B. Select proper footwear C. Walk with your hands in your pockets D. Maintain a clean work environment A, B & D – Walking with your hands in your pockets increases the likelihood of slips, trips and falls.

46 46 Thank You... Your participation has made this workshop a Great Success! Your participation has made this workshop a Great Success!


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