2Infectious diseases are illnesses caused by microorganisms Microorganisms are small things found everywhereMost do not cause disease and actually help your body function normallyCertain ones do CAUSE infectious Diseases that can spread directly or indirectlyThese are known as contagious or communicable diseasesThey are passed from person to person, object, or animal
4Pathogens are tiny organisms that cause communicable diseases Infection occur when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and damage cellsBacteria-tiny one-celled organisms that live nearly everywhereCommon types: strep throat ( if not taken care of can cause heart damage), boils, bacterial pneumonia, impetigo, sinus infection, tuberculosis, hepatitisVirus- smallest disease causing organism, not alive, cannot reproduce on their ownCommon types- measles, mumps, chicken pox, common cold, influenza, mononucleosis
5The West Nile virus broke out in 2000 in the northern part of the United States for several months. The news reported the number of deaths and informed the public about the virus and how it is transmitted. What are pros and cons to intense media coverage of a disease outbreak?
6Good hygieneHand washingTake warm showersEat properlyGet enough sleepUse clean utensilsDo not share drinking glasses with othersWear suitable clothing outside and use insect repellantExamine your body for ticksAvoid contact with contagious peopleCover your mouth-sneezing or coughingStay away during contagious period- length of time when a particular disease can spread from person to person
7Direct contact with the infected person Indirect contact with an infected personContact with a vector- an organism such as an insect, that transmits pathogensOther contacts- drink or eat after someone, uncooked meat, receive blood contaminatedCarriers- bacteria can remain dormant in the lungs of some people because they do exhibit any symptoms of the disease. Carriers get rid by taking medicine and living a healthy lifestyle.
8Ear piercing. Is it safe?What are risks of ear piercing?What are ways that the risks could be reduced?
9Drugs that can kill or slow the growth of bacteria Can be made from bacteria and moldPenicillin was the first discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming on accident1940 is when it became available to peopleIt is important to take all of the medicine to ensure to get rid of all the bacteria
10We live in a society of electronics We live in a society of electronics. Compare electronic viruses to viral viruses. How are they similar and different?
11Skin- Outside layer of skin is tough and made up of dead cells Skin- Outside layer of skin is tough and made up of dead cells. This makes it difficult to get germs through.Hairs- Traps germs around eyes and nose and keeps them from getting in the body. Cilia keeps germs out of the lungs.Tears-Wash out germs from your eyes.Mucus-Traps germs and contains chemicals to attack and destroy the germs.Saliva and Stomach acid- Germs that enter the mouth and stomach are killed by saliva and stomach acid.
12Immunity- body’s ability to resist germs that cause particular disease Immune system- main line of defense- cells, tissues, and organs that fight off pathogens and diseaseImmunity- body’s ability to resist germs that cause particular diseaseTwo major kinds of defense strategies:Nonspecific Response-Inflammation or increased blood flow to affected area, send white blood cells to speed to the affected area and destroy invading pathogensSpecific Response- Set in motion if it survives non-specific response, more specialized, it can recognize this pathogen if it enters the body again.
13Lymphatic System- secondary circulatory system that helps the body fight pathogens and maintain its fluid balanceLymphocytes react to antigens that are released by invading pathogensOur body produces antibodies –proteins to attach to antigens and keep them from harming us
14Two types of ImmunityNatural immunity- born with itAcquired immunity- develops over lifetimePassive acquired immunity- receiving antibodies from mother in wombActive acquired immunity- Body makes specific antibodies in response to invasion by a specific pathogenImmune Response- B cells-production of antibodies and T cells- destroy pathogensVaccines-preparation of dead or weakened pathogens that is injected into the body to cause the immune system to produce antibodies
15Write down three ways that the body can defend itself.
17Disease that can be passed from person to person by any form of sexual contact. STD/Is can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasitesSome STD/Is can cause lasting pain and infertility or the inability to produce childrenSome can cause brain damage, paralysis, and death
19Sexual abstinence is the refusal to take part in sexual activity Can avoid contracting STIThere are no vaccines for STIsYour body cannot build immunity to STIs
20Choose your friends carefully- they should share your morals and values Avoid being alone with a dateKnow your limits and communicate them with your date before you go outSay no through your words and actionsSeek advice from a trusted adult on handling difficult situations
23Deadly disease that affects the body’s natural ability to fight infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDSThe only way to tell if infected is through a blood testThere is no vaccine to prevent infection of HIV and no cure for AIDSCarriers appear healthy but can pass HIV to others
24Attacks immune system, activates B cells and destroys T cells Symptoms Swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, diarrhea, weight loss, feverPresence of opportunistic infection- infection that rarely occurs in a healthy person
25Sexual ContactMother to ChildDrug UseBlood Transfusion
26When visiting an AIDS patient, you have to wear protective mask and clothing not to protect yourself but the AIDS patient. Why?
27Not spread through the air Not spread through kissing- closed mouth. Open mouth, only if both people have soreNot spread through casual contact- shaking handsNot spread by mosquitoes that have bitten an infected personNot spread by sharing eating utensils with an infected personNot spread by donating blood
29How is HIV spread. Not spread How is HIV spread? Not spread? How would you feel about having a student in class with AIDS? How would the person like to be treated by others?
30Explain how STD’s are spread and what you think can be done to reduce the spread of STDs. Ask students how education can slow the spread of STDs?Two Columns- One for Method of Preventing Spread of Disease and Two- Method of Spreading Infectious Diseases
31You and some students are at a party at a friend’s house when another student arrives with a bottle of a new soft drink. He is telling everyone how good it is, and then he offers you a drink of it.” Ask the students if it is OK to drink after him?