Presentation on theme: "COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. Disease causing bacteria, can produce TOXINS. Toxins-Substance that kills cells and interferes functions. Can be treated with."— Presentation transcript:
Disease causing bacteria, can produce TOXINS. Toxins-Substance that kills cells and interferes functions. Can be treated with antibiotics
WHAT ARE THEY? Communicable Disease-disease that is spread from one living organism to another or through environment. Also known as contagious and infectious disease.
HOW DO THEY OCCUR? Pathogens enter the body Pathogens-micro-organisms that causes disease. If body does not fight off this pathogen it could lead to an INFECTION Infection--condition that occurs when pathogens in the body multiply and damage body cells.
VIRUSES The most common communicable disease Cold and Flu Viruses can only reproduce when they invade the cells of living organisms. Unable to treat a virus with antibiotics
TYPES OF VIRUSES Common Cold Influenza (flu) Measles Polio
PROCESS OF A VIRUS 1. Virus enter the body 2. Virus invade cells of living organisms 3. once virus invades cell it begins to multiply 4. New viruses burst out of cells and begin to take over other cells 5. Immune system kicks into actions and stops the virus
BACTERIA Bacteria-Micro-ogranisms that live almost everywhere on earth. Most are harmless Some are help (help digest food) Some cause disease
OTHER TYPES OF PATHOGENS 1. Fungi-plantlike organisms that can causes diseases of the lungs, mucous membranes and the skins. Athletes foot is a common fungi
HOW DISEASES SPREAD 1. Direct Contact Touching, biting, kissing -Puncture wounds-stepping on rusty nails -Contact with infected animals-animal bites and scratches can sometimes transmit diseases.
INDIRECT CONTACT Contaminated Objects-Can be spread from contaminated objects such as doorknob. What could you do to prevent this???? Vectors-Organisms that carry and transmits pathogens to humans or other animals. Ex. Flies mosquitoes, ticks. -Contaminated food or water-If food is improperly handled or stored, harmful bacteria could form.
AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION When infected person sneezes or coughs pathogens are released. Can travel as far as 10 feet Ex. Chicken Pox, flu
TAKING PRECAUTIONS No guaranteed way to avoid a communicable disease completely. -Wash Hands (soap and warm water) Before you eat After handling pets Touching objects handled by infected person
PROTECT YOURSELF FROM VECTORS Limit time you spent outdoors, after dark Wear protective clothing Sweat pants, sweat shirt Use repellent
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Review: What is a pathogen??? Where can we find them???
THE 5 BARRIERS The body has 5 barriers that keep pathogens out 1. TEARS TEARS COVER AND PROTECT THE EYE FROM DUST AND PATHOGENS. AS TEARS FLOW THEY CARRY FOREIGN MATERIAL AWAY FROM THE EYE.
5 BARRIERS CONT… #2: SALIVA: SALIVA HAS CHEMICAL THAT’S KILL PATHOGENS IN YOUR MOUTH #3: SKIN -SKIN PROVIDES PROTECTIVE SURFACE THAT KEEPS PATHOGENS FROM ENTERING BLOOD. -GETTING A CUT OR SCRAPE COULD LEAD TO PATHOGENS ENTERING THE BODY
5 BARRIERS CONT… #4: MUCOUS MEMBRANE MUCOUS MEMBRANE ARE THE SOFT SKIN THAT LINE THE NOSE, MOUTH, AND EYES. COATED WITH FLUID CALLED MUCUS, THAT TRAP PATOGENS WHEN YOUR SNEEZE, COUGHT OR CLEAR THROAT, BODY GETS RID OF MUCOUS
5 BARRIERS CONT… #5: STOMACH ACID: STOMACH ACID KILLS MANY OF THE PATHOGENS THAT GET PAST SALIVDA AND MUCOUS MEMBRANE.
WHAT HAPPENS IF PATHOGENS GET PAST 5 BARRIERS?? Immune system kicks in. Immune System: combination of body defenses made up of cells, tissues, and organs that fight pathogens in the body.
2 RESPONSES The immune system has 2 responses. Specific vs Non-specific
NON-SPECIFIC When you get a splinter in your finger, dirt and pathogens on the splinter also enter the system. Body responds with a non-specific response as it would with any foreign object entering the body. What usually happens when someone gets a splinter?
SPECIFIC RESPONSE Pathogens sometimes get past the non-specific response When this happens SPECIFIC RESPONSE kicks into action. Specific response attacks a particular pathogen. Your immune system can recognize certain pathogens!! Once immune system has created a specific response it will recognize them.
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM Lymphatic System-secondary circulatory system that helps the body fight pathogens and maintain fluid balance.