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Chapter 1 Cells and kingdoms

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1 Chapter 1 Cells and kingdoms

2 Lesson 1 Cells Organism: A living thing
Cell: The smallest unit of living things that carry out the basic processes of life

3 Animal Cell Round shape, smaller No cell wall, only a cell membrane
Some have many small vacuoles, and others may not have any vacuoles Gets energy from other animal/plant cells

4 Plant Cell Box-like shape, larger
Have an additional outer covering around the outside (cell wall) Usually have one large, central vacuole Makes own food in chloroplasts (green structure, contains chlorophyll) Gets energy from the sunlight

5 How are cells organized?
Tissue: similar cells working together at the same job, or function Organ: a group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function (example: heart, liver, brain, skin) Organ System: organs that work together to perform a certain function (example: circulatory, digestive, respiratory) Organ Tissue Organ Organ System

6 Lesson 2 Classifying Life
Scientists organize organisms by sorting, or classifying, them into groups according to shared characteristics Kingdoms are grouped by internal form and structure The narrowest (smallest) group an organism can be classified into is a species

7 Classification of a grizzly bear

8 Plant Kingdom (Vascular)
Vessels that run up and down the body Vascular tissue carries water and nutrients from the plants roots up to its leaves; it also moves sugars made in the leaves to other parts of the plant Typically a taller plant

9 Plant Kingdom (Nonvascular)
Smaller plant Remain small and close to the ground, where they soak up water directly Have you seen moss or trees that look like this?

10 Lesson 3 Plants Stems come in 2 basic forms Soft stems Woody stems
Soft stems: not as strong as woody stems; soft, green, can bend (less likely to be damaged in a storm) Woody stems: stronger than soft stems; hard, brown (more likely to be damaged in a storm because they can’t bend and they grow tall, which makes it easier to be struck by lightning).

11 Soft stem Woody stem

12 What are stems? Phloem: moves sugars that are made in the plant’s leaves to other parts of the plant; transports sugars up from one part of a plant to another Xylem and phloem cells are produced in the cambium, then move inward.

13 What are leaves? The leaves of a plant have the important function of carrying out photosynthesis, or the process of making food.

14 What are leaves?...continued
The top surface of a leaf has a waxy cuticle, a waterproof layer that prevents moisture from evaporating Which could survive longer without water: a thick cuticle or a thin cuticle? How could you test this?

15 Lesson 4 Classifying Animals
Asymmetrical: cannot be divided into mirror images. Radial Symmetry: All body parts are arranged around a central point; this type of organism has more than one line that divides the organism into 2 mirror images.

16 Lesson 4 continued Monotreme: a mammal that lays eggs (examples: duck-billed platypus, spiny anteater) Marsupial: a pouched mammal; give birth to partially developed offspring (examples: kangaroos, koala bears) Placental mammal: the young develop within its mother (examples: humans, dogs, tigers, elephants, whales)

17 Lesson 5 Animal Systems Skeletal System: bones, tendons, ligaments
Muscular system: provides the power to produce movement Digestive system: long tube in which food is broken down into nutrients an organism can use Digestive System Muscular System Skeletal System

18 Lesson 5 Continued… Esophagus: a muscular tube that contracts and expands to squeeze chewed food down the stomach Bronchi:small branch-like tubes inside the lungs, which empty into the alveoli. Alveoli: very thin-walled air sacs located at the tips of the bronchi

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