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21 The Deinococci, Mollicutes, and Nonproteobacterial Gram-Negative Bacteria Copyright © McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required.

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Presentation on theme: "21 The Deinococci, Mollicutes, and Nonproteobacterial Gram-Negative Bacteria Copyright © McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required."— Presentation transcript:

1 21 The Deinococci, Mollicutes, and Nonproteobacterial Gram-Negative Bacteria Copyright © McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Deinococcus Extraordinarily resistant to desiccation and radiation
can survive 3–5 million rad (100 rad lethal to humans) Isolated from ground meat, feces, air, fresh water, and other sources, but natural habitat unknown

3 Deinococcus Genome consists of two circular chromosomes, a megaplasmid, and a small plasmid radiation resistance due to ability to repair genome when it is severely damaged efficient proteins (protected by manganese) and enzymes for DNA repair Within 12–24 hours can repair chromosomes fragmented by exposure to radiation

4 The Mycoplasmas Lack cell walls and are pleomorphic
cannot synthesize peptidoglycan precursors sterols may stabilize plasma membrane smallest bacteria capable of self-reproduction grow as fried egg appearance on agar surface

5 More about The Mycoplasmas
Genomes less than 1000 genes one of the smallest found in prokaryotes

6 Important Pathogens Mycoplasma mycoides – pleuropneumonia in cattle
Mycoplasma gallisepticum – chronic respiratory disease in chickens Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae – swine pneumonia Mycoplasma pneumoniae – primary atypical pneumonia in humans Ureaplasma urealyticum – premature birth, neonatal meningitis and pneumonia spiroplasmas – pathogenic in insects, ticks, and a variety of plants

7 The Photosynthetic Bacteria: 5 Groups
Cyanobacteria – oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria:(These range from photolithoautotrophs to photoorganoheterotrophs) Purple bacteria Purple non-sulfur bacteria Green non-sulfur bacteria Green sulfur bacteria


9 Photosynthetic Bacteria
The cyanobacteria carry out oxygenic photosynthesis use water as an electron donor and generate oxygen during photosynthesis The purple and green bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis and use a variety of organic and inorganic nutrients for electron donors (lithotrophs or organotrophs) and carbon (autotrophs or heterotrophs)

10 Photosynthetic Microbes
Differences in photosynthetic pigments, with distinct absorption spectra, and oxygen requirements are important ecologically inhabit different layers of water environments

11 The Cyanobacteria Largest, most diverse group of photosynthetic bacteria Chlorophyceae – “blue green algae” common term Many are obligate photolithoautotrophs; some can grow slowly in dark as chemoheterotrophs Important in nitrogen cycle (provide fertilizer for cultivation of rice and bean crops) Fossil records date back 3.8 million years Responsible for the Earth’s atmosphere Endosymbiosis leading to eukaryotic plants Have chlorophyll a

12 More about Cyanobacteria
Some storage structures have carboxysomes (enzymes for Calvin cycle) cyanophycin Range in diameter from ~1 to 10 mm May be unicellular, colonial, or filaments

13 More about Cyanobacteria
Pigmentation most appear blue-green due to presence of phycocyanin presence of phycoerythrin in many ocean isolates gives them red or brown coloration chromatic adaption modulation of pigment concentrations in different light Phototaxis by use of gas vacuoles

14 Specialized Reproductive Cells and Structures
Binary fission, budding, fragmentation, multiple fission Hormogonia small, motile fragments of filamentous cyanobacteria Akinetes dormant, thick-walled resting cells resistant to desiccation often germinate to form new filaments Baeocytes produced by multiple fission small spherical cells; escape when outer wall ruptures some are motile by gliding motility

15 Heterocysts Specialized cells used for nitrogen fixation
produced when organism is nitrogen deprived differentiate from individual cells in filament thick heterocyst wall prevents O2 diffusion into heterocyst which would inactivate nitrogenase

16 Ecology of Cyanobacteria - 1
Tolerant of environmental extremes thermophilic species can grow at temperatures up to 75°C often are primary colonizers Can cause blooms in nutrient-rich ponds and lakes some produce toxins

17 Ecology of Cyanobacteria - 2
Often form symbiotic relationships e.g., are phototrophic partner in most lichens e.g., symbionts with protozoa and fungi e.g., nitrogen-fixing species form plant associations Profound effect on global carbon cycle Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus two marine genera; ~1/3 of global CO2 fixation less than 1% of ocean mass

18 The Chlamydia Obligate intracellular parasites
must grow and reproduce inside host cells although known for ability to cause disease, many grow within hosts such as protists, and animal cells without adverse effects One class, one order, four families, six genera genus Chlamydia is best studied

19 Genus Chlamydia Nonmotile, coccoid, Gram-negative
cell walls lack muramic acid in peptidoglycan have very small genomes Obligate intracellular parasites with unique developmental cycle elementary body (EB) attaches to host cell reticulate body (RB) reproduction by binary fission differentiate back into EB, lyses cell


21 Chlamydial Metabolism
Cannot catabolize carbohydrates Cannot synthesize ATP or NAD+ import up from host do have genes for substrate-level phosphorylation, electron transport, and oxidative phosphorylation RBs have biosynthetic capabilities when supplied precursors from host; can synthesize some amino acids EBs seem to be dormant forms

22 Chlamydial diseases Chlamydia is the most frequently reported sexually transmitted bacterial disease 1.3 million cases in US in 2010 number underestimated due to asymptomatic cases Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly isolated species transmitted through anal, oral, and vaginal sex; can also be transmitted from mother to child during delivery

23 Chlamydial diseases Clinical manifestations in males in females
asymptomatic or urethral discharge, and itching and inflammation of genital tract in females sometimes asymptomatic may cause PID if pregnant, can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, inclusion conjunctivitis, and infant pneumonia Chlamydial diseases

24 Trachoma Caused by C. trachomatis serotypes A-C
Transmitted by hand-to-hand contact, contact with infected soaps and towels, and flies, also mother–child contact in adults The greatest single cause of blindness throughout the world

25 Trachoma Clinical manifestations first infection reinfection
abrupt onset of inflamed conjunctiva, leading to inflammatory cell exudate and necrotic eyelash follicles usually heals spontaneously reinfection pannus formation (vascularization of cornea), leading to scarring of conjunctiva if scarring of cornea also occurs, blindness results

26 Psittacosis (Ornithosis)
Caused by Chlamydophilia psittaci (previously Chlamydia psittaci) enters respiratory tract, transported to and reproduces in liver and spleen, and then invades lungs Infectious disease of birds transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected birds or by inhalation of dried bird excreta occupational hazard in poultry industry

27 Psittacosis Clinical manifestations Diagnosis
inflammation and hemorrhaging of lung tissue and pneumonia Diagnosis isolation from blood or sputum, or by serology Treatment, prevention, and control antibiotic therapy chemoprophylaxis for pet birds and poultry

28 Chlamydial Pneumonia Caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae
obligate intracellular parasite may also play role in coronary artery disease and vascular disease at other sites Transmission probably human to human by respiratory secretions elementary bodies infect, reticular bodies replicate

29 Chlamydial Pneumonia Clinical manifestations
fever, productive cough, and mild pharyngitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis Diagnosis, treatment, prevention observation of symptoms and a microimmunofluorescence test antibiotic therapy

30 The Spirochaetes Contains one class; one order, three families, 13 genera Gram-negative, chemoheterotrophic bacteria with distinctive structure and motility slender, long with flexible helical shape creeping (crawling) motility due to a structure called an axial filament Oxygen requirements vary

31 Symbiotic Associations between Spirochetes and Other Organisms
Ecologically diverse free living symbiotic hindguts of termites digestive tracts of mollusks and mammals oral cavities of animals disease Lyme disease, syphilis and leptospirosis are spirochete diseases


33 Syphilis Caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum
Venereal syphilis – sexually transmitted Congenital syphilis – acquired in utero

34 Syphilis Diagnosis Treatment, prevention, and control
clinical history, microscopic examination, and serology Treatment, prevention, and control antibiotic therapy most effective in early stages public education, prompt treatment of new cases, follow-up on sources and contacts, sexual hygiene, and use of condoms

35 Lyme Disease LD or Lyme borreliosis
Most common tick-borne disease in the U.S. Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi (most common in U.S.), B. garinii, and B. afzelii (most common in Europe and Asia) Borrelia burgdorferi

36 Lyme Disease Transmitted from animal reservoirs by ticks (Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus) deer, field mice, and woodrats Complex disease clinical manifestations vary with three stages of disease initial, disseminated, late stage

37 Stages of Lyme Disease Localized stage Disseminated stage
develops 1 week to 10 days after infection expanding, ring-shaped, skin lesion flu-like symptoms Disseminated stage occurs weeks or months after infection neurological abnormalities, heart inflammation, and arthritis Lyme arthritis may be autoimmune to joint MHC which are similar to bacterial antigens

38 Stages of Lyme Disease Late stage occurs years later
demyelination of neurons, behavioral changes, and symptoms resembling Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis

39 Lyme Disease Diagnosis Treatment, prevention, and control
serogical testing (Lyme ELISA or Western blot) isolation of spirochete from patient detection of Borrelia DNA (PCR) Treatment, prevention, and control antibiotic therapy most effective in early stages tick control and avoiding ticks

40 Bacteroides Anaerobic, Gram-negative rods, various shapes
Often found in oral cavity and intestinal tract of humans and other animals and the rumen of ruminants often benefit host by degrading complex carbohydrates, providing extra nutrition to host constitute up to 30% of bacteria from human feces some cause disease Most common nosocomial anaerobic infection with a 20% fatality rate

41 Gliding Motility - 1 Characteristic of the Bacteriodetes
Also present in many other taxa fruiting and nonfruiting aerobic chemoheterotrophs cyanobacteria green nonsulfur bacteria at least two Gram-positive genera

42 Gliding Motility - 2 Gliding mechanism unknown
occurs when cells in contact with solid surface cells leave slime trail; motility often lost with age low-nutrient levels usually stimulate gliding

43 Advantages of Gliding Motility
Enables cells to encounter insoluble nutrient sources and digest them with cell bound digestive enzymes Works well in drier habitats (e.g., soil, sediments, and rotting wood) Enables cells to position themselves optimally for light intensity, [O2], [H2S], temperature, etc.

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