Presentation on theme: "Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, and Fermentation"— Presentation transcript:
1Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, and Fermentation Cellular ProcessesA unit to review 3 main processes cells undertake that deal with energy creation:Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, and Fermentation
2Candles release energy as HEAT & LIGHT Energy Takes Many Forms such as light, heat, electrical, chemical, mechanical, etc.Energy can be changed from one form to anotherEnergy can be stored in chemical bonds & then released laterCandles release energy as HEAT & LIGHT
3PHOTOSYNTHESISThe process of converting sunlight into FOOD that can be used by the plant cell. This process DOES NOT create energy for the plant.
7Autotrophs Autotrophs include organisms that make their own food Some use the sun’s energy directlyEuglena
8AutotrophsPlants, and some other organisms that contain chlorophyll, are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food.
9Heterotrophs Heterotrophs can NOT directly use the sun’s energy Heterotrophs are organisms that must consume (eat) other organisms for food
10Plants Autotrophs – produce their own food (glucose) Process called photosynthesisMainly occurs in the leaves:a. stoma - poresb. mesophyll cellsMesophyllCellChloroplastStoma
11Stomata (stoma)Pores in a plant’s cuticle through which water vapor and gases (CO2 & O2) are exchanged between the plant and the atmosphere.Oxygen(O2)Guard CellCarbon Dioxide(CO2)
12Chlorophyll Molecules Located in the thylakoid membranesChlorophyll pigments harvest energy (photons) by absorbing certain wavelengths (blue-420 nm and red-660 nm are most important)Plants are green because the green wavelength is reflected, not absorbed.
14Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll Chlorophyll absorbs blue-violet & red light bestviolet blue green yellow orange redAbsorptionwavelength
15Fall ColorsIn addition to the chlorophyll pigments, there are other pigments presentDuring the fall, the green chlorophyll pigments are greatly reduced revealing the other pigmentsCarotenoids are pigments that are either red, orange, or yellow
16Photosynthesis Anabolic (small molecules combined) Endergonic (stores energy)Carbon dioxide (CO2) requiring process that uses light energy (photons) and water (H2O) to produce organic macromolecules (glucose).6CO H2O C6H12O O2 + ATPglucoseSUNphotons
18Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis Amount of available waterTemperatureAmount of available light energy
19Two Parts of Photosynthesis Two reactions make up photosynthesis:Light Reaction or Light Dependent ReactionProduces energy from solar power (photons) in the form of ATP and NADPH.Calvin Cycle or Light Independent ReactionAlso called Carbon Fixation or C3 FixationUses energy (ATP and NADPH) from light reaction to make sugar (glucose).
22The Calvin Cycle Uses ATP and NADPH from light reaction as energy Uses CO2To produceglucose
23C3 Plants Temperate environement 85% of all plants (evergreens, grain plants, deciduous trees)Stomates open during day and closed at nightLeaves with larger air spaces
24C4 Plants Hot, moist environments 3% of plants (weeds [crabgrass], corn, sugarcane)Stomates openduring day andclosed at nightThinner leaves with less air space
25CAM Plants Hot, dry environments 8% of plants (cactus and ice plants) Stomates closed during day and open during the nightThick fleshy leaves
26Structure of ATP ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate Composed of a nitrogen base (adenine), the pentose (5C) sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups.The last phosphate group is bonded with a HIGH ENERGY chemical bondThis bond can be broken to release ENERGY for cells to useHigh Energy Phosphate Bond
27Removing a Phosphate from ATP Breaking the last phosphate bond from ATP will:Release ENERGY for cells to useForm ADPProduce a free phosphate groupEnergy
28Releasing Energy From ATP ATP is constantly being used and remade by cellsATP provides all of the energy for cell activitiesThe high energy phosphate bonds can be broken to release energyThe reforming the ATP molecule is called phosphorylation (joining free phosphate and ADP together)
29Releasing Energy From ATP Adding A Phosphate Group To ADP stores Energy in ATPRemoving A Phosphate Group From ATP Releases Energy & forms ADPLoseGain
30More on ATP Cells have enough ATP to last for a few seconds ATP must constantly be madeATP transfers energy very wellATP isNOT goodat energystorage
31Cells Using Biochemical Energy Cells Use ATP For:Active transportMovementPhotosynthesisProtein SynthesisCellular respirationAll other cellular reactions
32GlucoseGlucose is a monosaccharideC6H12O6One molecule of glucose stores 90 times more chemical energy than one molecule of ATP
33Cell RespirationThe process of using glucose (sugar) and O2 (oxygen) to create energy (ATP) for all cells.
34When is ATP Made in the Body? During a process called Cellular Respiration that takes place in both plants & animalsCellular Respiration breaks down the glucose molecules to release energy.
35Equation for Cellular Respiration C6H12O O2yields6CO2 + 6H ATP’s
36Cellular Respiration Requires oxygen Metabolic Pathway that breaks down carbohydratesBreakdown of one glucose results in 36 to 38 ATP moleculesGlucose is oxidized and O2 is reduced, therefore is an oxidation-reduction reaction.Process is Exergonic as High-energy Glucose is broken into CO2 and H2OProcess is also Catabolic because larger Glucose breaks into smaller molecules
37Where Does Cellular Respiration Take Place? It actually takes place in two parts of the cell:Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasmKrebs Cycle & ETC take place in the mitochondria
38Stages of Cellular Respiration GlycolysisOccurs in cytoplasm, anaerobic and aerobic, uses two ATP and produces 4, splits glucose into two pyruvate moleculesThe Krebs CycleOccurs in matrix (mitochondria), aerobic, occurs twice (creates 1 ATP each cycle), releases CO2 and two ATP molecules
39Stages of Cellular Respiration Electron Transport ChainOccurs in the inner membrane (mitochondria), aerobic, creates 34 ATP molecules and releases H2OThe end result of Cellular Respiration is 38 ATP molecules.
40FermentationThe process of creating energy in the absence of O2.
41Fermentation Occurs when O2 NOT present (anaerobic) Called Lactic Acid fermentation in muscle cells (makes muscles tired)Called Alcoholic fermentation in yeast (produces ethanol)Nets only 2 ATP