2 AutotrophsPlants and some other types of organisms are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food.Contain chlorophyll, a pigment that captures sunlight.
3 Heterotrophs Organisms that cannot make their own food. Cannot use sun’s energy directly.
4 Candles release energy as HEAT & LIGHT Comes in many forms including light, heat, and electricity.Can be changed from one form to another.Can be stored in chemical compounds.Candles release energy as HEAT & LIGHT
5 ATP – Cellular energy Adenosine triphosphate Contains two, high-energy phosphate bondsAlso contains the nitrogen base adenine & a ribose sugarEnergy is stored in the bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphates.ENERGY
6 ADP Adenosine Diphosphate ATP releases energy, a free phosphate, & ADP when cells take energy from ATP
7 Using energy in atp ATP only provides energy for a few seconds. It is constantly being used and remade by cells.Provides energy for all cell’s activities:Active TransportMovementPhotosynthesisProtein SynthesisCellular RespirationMany more!
8 Storing and releasing energy Adding A Phosphate Group To ADP stores Energy in ATPRemoving A Phosphate Group From ATP Releases Energy & forms ADPLooseGain
9 glucose Glucose is a monosaccharide C6H12O6 One Molecule of glucose Stores 90 Times More Chemical Energy Than One Molecule of ATP
10 PhotosynthesisIn words: Involves the use Of light energy to convert Water (H20) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into Oxygen (O2) and High Energy Carbohydrates (sugars, e.g. Glucose) & Starches.
11 The photosynthesis equation 6CO H2O + energy C6H12O6 + 6O2Carbon Dioxide + Water + Sunlight Glucose + Oxygen
13 pigmentsIn addition to water, carbon dioxide, and light energy, photosynthesis requires PigmentsChlorophyll is the primary light-absorbing pigment in autotrophsChlorophyll is found inside chloroplasts
14 Photon = Light Energy Unit Light and pigmentsEnergy From The Sun Enters Earth’s Biosphere As PhotonsPhoton = Light Energy UnitLight Contains A Mixture Of WavelengthsDifferent Wavelengths Have Different Colors
15 Light and PigmentsDifferent pigments absorb different wavelengths of lightPhotons of light “excite” electrons in the plant’s pigmentsExcited electrons carry the absorbed energyThe main pigments found in plants is chlorophyll.Chlorophyll is found in chloroplasts.
16 chlorophyllChlorophyll absorbs light well in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum.
17 Inside a chloroplastContain saclike photosynthetic membranes called thylakoids.Thylakoids are arranged in stacks called grana (singular: granum).Contain clusters of chlorophyll and other pigments as well as proteins known as photosystems that capture sunlight energy.Singlethylakoid
18 Inside a chloroplastGel-like material surrounding the grana = stroma.
19 Electron carriersWhen electrons in chlorophyll absorb sunlight, the electrons gain A LOT of energy.Chloroplasts use electron carriers to transfer these electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules.
20 NADP+ One electron carrier is NADP+. It accepts and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion (H+).
21 Light-dependent reactions Part 1 of PhotosynthesisOccurs across thylakoid membranes.Uses light energy.Produce oxygen from water.Convert ADP to ATP and NADP+ to NADPH.
25 The calvin cycle Also known as: Light-Independent Reactions Occur in stromaUses ATP and NADPH from the Light-Dependent Reactions to form high-energy sugars.
26 The calvin cycle Six CO2 molecules enter the cycle. Bonds in the ATP and NADPH molecules are broken to release the stored energy.This energy is used to turn the CO2 molecules into a 6-carbon sugar (glucose).
27 Calvin cycle summary Reactants Products CO2 ATP NADPH C6H12O6 (high-energy sugar)ADPNADP+