Published byCarson Clowes Modified over 8 years ago
Chapter 3 Lessons 2 and 3 How do Materials move through plants?
How do cells get and use energy? By: Rylee and Zoee
Lesson 2 Stems and roots are major plants organs. They have special structures and jobs to perform.
Stems and Leaves Leaves are plant organs.
Leaves are attached to stems. Stems hold fruit and flowers on plants.
Xylem and Phloem Vascular System: a system of tubes that transports materials such as water and minerals. Xylem: tubes that carry materials from the plants roots to the leaves. Phloem: tubes that carry sugar away from the leaves The roots soak up water from the soil and the water has minerals in it.
More about Stems and Vascular Plants
Plants get energy they need by breaking down sugar. The plants makes its food in the leaves. Much of the sugar is transported from the leaves to the rest of the plant. A leaf stem attaches a plants leaves to its stem.
Roots Roots anchor the plant in the ground and hold in place as it grows. Fibrous Root System: many roots grow out in all directions forming smaller and smaller roots. Taproot Root System: a large root that grows straight down.
Functions of Roots Roots anchor a plant and may store food.
Roots absorb water from the soil. Minerals and nutrients are dissolved then enter the roots.
Lesson 3 The leaves of a plant make sugar. This sugar contains energy the plant can use for life functions.
Photosynthesis Chlorophyll: a green substance that traps energy from the sun and allows plants to make their own food. Chloroplasts: stores chlorophyll. Photosynthesis: Plants make sugar and glucose in the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis can only happen when chlorophyll is present.
Energy from Food Cellular Respiration: cells break down sugar to release energy. During cellular respiration, sugar starts to be broken down through a series of reactions that take place mostly in the mitochondria.
Carbon Dioxide-Oxygen Cycle
Both plants and animals give off carbon dioxide during cellular respiration. Photosynthesis: carbon dioxide + water Light energy sugar + oxygen chlorophyll Cellular Respiration sugar + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy
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