Presentation on theme: "New York State Intermediate Science Review"— Presentation transcript:
1New York State Intermediate Science Review NAME ____________________New York State Intermediate Science ReviewMr. AmidonThe Living Environment Life Science The Physical Setting Earth Science Chemistry Physics Energy
2Cells The Cell Theory states that: living things are composed of cells.cells are the basic unit of structure and function of living things.all cells come from other cells.
3Types of Cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Simple; no nucleus or organelles BacteriaEukaryoticLarger, more complexMany organellesFound in Animals, Plants, Fungi, & ProtistsThese are the “cells” you think of
4Cell OrganellesCell Membrane- surrounds the cells and controls entry and exitCytoplasm- the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus; Liquid material that contain the organelles of the cell.Nucleus- The "brain" of the cell. Contains the chromosomes.Chromosomes- Information center of the cell. Contain most of the genes, which are made up of DNA. ...Ribosome- helps to build proteins.Endoplasmic Reticulum – transports proteinsGolgi Bodies- packages proteinsMitochondria-Cellular respiration. Energy is produced.Vacuole- storage center. Both wastes and nutrients.Lysosomes- controls the enzymes that break down protein.Not Found in Animal CellsCell Wall- provides support and helps to protect planet cells.Chloroplasts- found only in plant cells. Contains chlorophyll, which transforms CO2 and light energy into food and O2.
5Photosynthesis & Respiration are Opposite Reactions In Photosynthesis:Energy is used to create sugarsCarbon Dioxide & Water are ReactantsOxygen in a ProductIn Respiration:Energy is released when sugars are broken downFood and Oxygen are ReactantsCarbon Dioxide & Water are Products
6Cell Organization Organelles do life functions for individual cells In multicellular organisms, life functions need to be taken care of as a wholeCells are become specialized & organizedGroups of cells with similar functions are TISSUESGroups of tissues are ORGANSOrgans that work together formORGAN SYSTEMS
7Body Systems Digestive Endocrine Nervous Immune Circulatory Break down foodEndocrineChemical signals through hormonesNervousElectrical signalsImmuneFight disease & infectionCirculatoryTransport food & wastes
9Cell Division Cells split two different ways Mitosis Creates an exact replica of the original cell (clone)Most unicellular organisms reproduce this wayHappens all the time in your bodyMeiosisResults in a cell with only ½ of the regular chromosomesOnly happens in sexually reproduction
11Cancer MUTATION Produces too many cells, may not replicate correctly Caused by change in DNA structureMUTATIONUncontrolled cell divisionProduces too many cells, may not replicate correctlyProduces a tumorMass of cell created when cell divide and grow uncontrollablyIF a cell from a tumor breaks off and begins growing in a new area, cancer can be spread (metastasis)
12Reproduction Asexual Sexual Involves one parent Usually, offspring have exactly the samegenetic information as the parent.This only changes if there is a mutation.TYPESPlants – runners, roots, graftingAnimals – buddingProtists/ Bacteria – Fission (Binary)SexualInvolves two parents (usually)Genes are mixedCreates offspring different from parentsSPECIES BENEFITS DUE TO VARIATIONLess likely that one disease can wipe out awhole population
14Genetics Discovered when Gregor Mendel crossed pea plants Sexual Reproduction produces variation because genes come in pairs(1 copy from mother, one copy from father)Genes represent features seen in organismsDominant genes (brown eyes, tall pea plants)are always expressed if they are presentRecessive genes (blue eyes, short pea plants)show only if the organism has two copiesAllow different traits to be seen in offspringIf traits help offspring survive, the trait is passed onPeppered Moths
15Punnett Square T t Tt T t 0% will be Homozygous tall Capital represents dominant gene (T = tall)Lowercase is recessive (t = short)Each parent has two copies & all offspring have two copies, but ONLY ONE COMES FROM EACH PARENT!TT = Homozygous talltt = Homozygous shortTt = Heterozygous tall*Sometimes hybrids are mixes, like white flowers crossed with red flowers to make pink flowersThis is incomplete dominanceUsed to predict percentages of offspring with certain traits0% will be Homozygous tall0% will be Homozygous short100% will be Heterozygous tallTt_____ will be Homozygous tall_____ will be Homozygous short_____ will be Heterozygous tall
16Nutrition Food provides fuel and building material. All organisms release energy from food to carry out life functions.Food contains nutrients, vitamins, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and water.All of the above are necessary for survival of the organism.Metabolism is the total of all chemical reactions.Your metabolism can be affected by your hormones, exercise, diet and aging.Food energy is measured in calories.Each organism requires a different amount of calories.In order to maintain homeostasis all organisms need a minimum daily requirement of caloriesA change in caloric intake can cause weight loss/gain or disease.Infectious disease, behavior and use of toxic substances can cause a change in homeostasis.During pregnancy these changes can affect the development of the child.Some of these changes can affect your body immediately or may take years to develop.
17Energy Through Ecosystems All energy for living things comes from the Sun originallyGreen plants and other organisms with chlorophyll carry out photosynthesis.The sun's energy in converted into sugar.The amount of sugar present in a green plant increases with more sun light.Photosynthesis provides the atmosphere with a major source of oxygen.Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.Green plants are producers.Energy from green plants is used by consumers directly or indirectly.Energy needs to be inputted from the Sun everyday!
18EcosystemsPopulation- all individuals of a species that live together.Community- all populations living together in a particular area.Ecosystem- the community and the physical factors with which it interacts.All biotic and abiotic factorsEnergy enters the ecosystem by the sun through green plants.The process of photosynthesis converts sunlight into energy.A food chain:
19Food Web Interconnected food chains. Matter is transferred from one organism to another and between organisms and the environment.
20Nutrient CyclesEnergy is not cycled! It is lost to the environment!
21Energy Pyramids Energy is lost in a ecosystem The green circle represents the producer. All of the stored energy in the body of the producer organism is eaten by the primary consumer.The second circle represents the primary consumer. Only the stored energy is eaten by the secondary consumer.The third circle above represents the secondary consumer. Only a very small fraction (shown in green) of the producer's original energy is stored by the secondary consumer. This energy is taken into the body of the tertiary consumer.As the energy is passed along the food chain much of it is either used or lost. Therefore there is a limit to the number of organisms in a food chain. The top carnivore is usually the third or fourth consumer.
23Niche & HabitatThe habitat must supply the needs of organisms, such as food, water, temperature, oxygen, and minerals.If the population's needs are not met, it will move to a better habitat, or the population will not survive.An organism's niche is their role in the ecosystem.If a habitat describes where an organisms lives, niche describes what an organism does for a living.A niche is defined by the way the organism interacts with the living and nonliving components of its ecosystem - what it eats, the habitat it prefers, etc.Different species could occupy similar niches in different, separate habitats.Organisms are basically classified on the basis of their niche as decomposers, consumers, or producers.The niche of a tuna within its ecosystem is that of top predator because it eats other animals and nothing eats it.In that same ecosystem, a crab would be an omnivore because it eats both plants and animals, and bacteria would be a decomposer.
24Relationships Between Species Two different populations can not occupy the same niche at the same time, so the processes of competition, predation, cooperation, and symbiosis occur.Parasitism – when two organisms live in a way that helps one species survive, while harm is done to the otherCommensalism – when two organisms live close together and one species benefits, but the other really is not affectedMutualism – two organisms live close together and both species benefit. However, the survival of one species does not depend on the other.Pollination of plants by insects, birds & batsSymbiosis – two or more organisms live so close together that they can not survive without the other organismLichens
25Survival of the Fittest In order for an organism to survive, they must overcome many obstacles:Predation – some species are food for other speciesCompetition - Organisms within an environment may compete for resources such as food or shelter.The strongest organisms would gain the resources and survive to reproduce. If one species out-competes another species in the area, this could lead to wiping out an entire species. (Extinction)Disease – parasites that weaken the organism, or cause deathChange in Environment – sometimes resources change and the species must be able to find new food sources or move to a location they can survive inAdaptation –the development of new traits that are advantageous and help the organism escape predators, or find food better, or survive diseases, or out-compete other organisms for food suppliesPhysical = the development of a certain body part that helps the organism survive (Giraffes long necks)Behavioral = the change in a behavior to help the organism survive (Many animals are active at night because some predators have a hard time seeing in the dark)
26Evolution Proposed by Charles Darwin Explains how natural selection produces offspring that are not the same as the generations that come before it.Adaptations that help individuals survive will show in offspring because they are more likely to reproduceEvolution is “powered” by genetic mutations. These are changes in the DNA that cause new traits to be seen.Mutations are not always bad!If trait helps organisms compete, trait will be passed on. Eventually, enough new traits can be passed on so that offspring do not look like ancestors.If these descendants are so different from the original species, then a new species have developed. It evolved from the old species.Evolution does not happen in one day, it can only be seen as a progression over many generations
28Ecosystems in FluxIn ecosystems, balance is the result of interactions between community members and their environment.The environment may be altered through the activities of organisms. Alterations are sometimes abrupt. Some species may replace others over time, resulting in long-term gradual changes (ecological succession).Extinction can happen if environments change too quickly for members of an ecosystem.Overpopulation by any species impacts the environment due to the increased use of resources. Human activities can bring about environmental changes through resource acquisition, urban growth, land-use decisions, waste disposal, etc..Since the industrial revolution, human activities have resulted in major pollution of air, water, and soil. Pollution has cumulative ecological effects such as acid rain, global warming, or ozone depletion. the survival of living things on our planet depends on the conservation and protection of Earth's resources.
29Classification Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species Carrolus LinneausDeveloped two-part naming system(Genus & species)Based on structures & characteristicsCalypte anna