Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

I. Nutrients from soil and air B. 95% of a plant’s dry weight is organic (built mainly from CO 2 ) - plant’s are predominantly built from the air C. Sugar.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "I. Nutrients from soil and air B. 95% of a plant’s dry weight is organic (built mainly from CO 2 ) - plant’s are predominantly built from the air C. Sugar."— Presentation transcript:

1 I. Nutrients from soil and air B. 95% of a plant’s dry weight is organic (built mainly from CO 2 ) - plant’s are predominantly built from the air C. Sugar Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport Fig. 32.1A - carbon and oxygen from CO 2 - hydrogen from water - Two fates - cellular respiration or biosynthesis A. Plants need to make everything (organic) from scratch (inorganic) (Some)

2 I. Nutrients from soil and air Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport Fig. 32.1A D. Nitrogen, phosphorus, Mg ++, etc… from soil - used in combination with glucose to make hormones, ATP, coenzymes (chlorophyll), nucleotides, amino acids, etc… i. nitrogen ii. Magnesium (Mg ++ ) - part of chlorophyll iii. phosphorus - ATP, nucleic acids, phospholipids, etc… (Some)

3 II. PM of roots control solute uptake Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Root hairs provide high surface area - Casparian strip Fig Intracellular route vs. Extracellular route C. Epidermis --> cortex --> endodermis --> xylem - waxy belt through walls of endoderm - stops solution from entering xylem via cell walls D. Endodermal membrane is highly selective (gatekeeper -> can’t get into xylem without being aloud through) B. Must be dissolved in solution to enter

4 III. Getting xylem sap up to the shoot system Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Water/minerals (xylem sap) must somehow get up xylem vessel B. How does it do this against gravity??? - minor push from roots actively pumping ions into xylem (water follows by osmosis) i. Root pressure - works over a few meters - not enough for taller trees, and many trees (i.e. giant sequoia) produce NO root pressure

5 III. Getting xylem sap up to the shoot system Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Water/minerals (xylem sap) must somehow get up xylem vessel B. How does it do this against gravity??? Fig ii. Transpiration - loss of water from leaves (stomata) pull xylem sap upward a. cohesion (water hydrogen- bonding to other waters): makes the xylem sap like a continuous string b. Adhesion (water sticking to other molecules): sticks to cellulose walls of xylem - Two properties of water that make this possible:

6 III. Getting xylem sap up to the shoot system Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Water/minerals (xylem sap) must somehow get up xylem vessel B. How does it do this against gravity??? Fig ii. Transpiration - water molecule at end of chain in leaf is heated by solar energy - This molecule diffuses out of the stomata and evaporates - As it does this, it pulls on the neighboring waters (cohesion), the neighbors pull on their neighbors and so on all the way to the roots (Without the suns KE, the water in the leaf would remain stuck to its neighbors - no pulling force, no transpiration)

7 III. Getting xylem sap up to the shoot system Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Water/minerals (xylem sap) must somehow get up xylem vessel B. How does it do this against gravity??? Fig ii. Transpiration - What about adhesion? - adhesion counters downward pull of gravity by “grabbing” walls of xylem - holds water in xylem when transpiration is not occurring (at night)

8 IV. Guard cells control transpiration Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Transpiration works for and against plants i. Water loss - plant needs to lose water in order to get minerals - average maple tree loses 200L per hour during summer - not a problem only if there is enough water in soil A wilting plant caused by water loss under dry conditions

9 IV. Guard cells control transpiration Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport B Stomata i. Each has a pair of guard cells - change shape to control opening - open during day when photosynthesis rates are high (need CO 2 ) - closed at night to save water Guard cells of stomata

10 IV. Guard cells control transpiration Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport B Stomata ii. How do guard cells change shape to regulate open/closed state? Fig opening stomata - guard cells ACTIVELY take up K + - water follows by osmosis - causes swelling and high turgor pressure (pressure of cells contents against cell wall) - causes cells to bend away from each other due to arrangement of cellulose fibers:

11 IV. Guard cells control transpiration Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport B Stomata ii. How do guard cells change shape to regulate open/closed state? Fig opening stomata - What stimulates guard cells to take up K + ? a. sunlight, low CO 2, circadian rhythm (biological clock)

12 IV. Guard cells control transpiration Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport B Stomata ii. How do guard cells change shape to regulate open/closed state? Fig Closed stomata - actively pump out K+ - water follows passively (osmosis) - cells sag and stomata close:

13 IV. Guard cells control transpiration Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport B Stomata ii. How do guard cells change shape to regulate open/closed state? Fig Closed stomata - stimulation to pump out K+ a. Too much water loss during day - result in decline of CO 2 uptake (sugar production declines), which is why crop yields decline in droughts 3. Opening and closing balanced b/w need to save water and need to make sugar

14 V. Phloem transport (sugar/organic compounds) Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Phloem sap i. Sugary solution moving through seive-tube members ii. Main solute = sucrose iii. Hormones, inorganic ions, amino acids iv. Moves in ALL directions v. All phloems have a source and sink - sugar source: where sugar is made (in leaves by photosynthesis or generated by breaking down from starch) - sugar sink: where sugar is consumed or stored (growing roots, shoot tips, fruits, non-photosynthetic stems, etc…) -storage sites can be both sources and sinks depending on environment (tubers, taproots, bulbs, etc…) a. sinks during summer (maximum photosynthetic activity) b. source during spring (growth)

15 V. Phloem transport (sugar/organic compounds) Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Phloem sap vi. How does phloem sap move from source to sink? - pressure-flow mechanism a. Sugar enters phloem at source by active transport Fig b. Water follows by osmosis - makes water pressure high at source c. Sugar actively transported out of phloem at sink d. Water follows by osmosis - water pressure low at sink e. Hydrostatic pressure gradient causes water to flow from source to sink NO MATTER WHERE THEY ARE LOCATED (sugar goes along for the ride)

16 V. Phloem transport (sugar/organic compounds) Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Phloem sap vii. How can one test the pressure-flow mechanism? i. Using Aphids Fig a. Aphids feed by inserting their stylus into phloem of plant b. Releases honeydew (phloem sap minus nutrients absorbed by aphid) from anus c. Sever aphid from stylet d. Closer stylet to source, quicker it drips:

17 VI. The essential nutrient of plants Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Hydroponics i. Can be used to determine essential nutrients ii. Grow plants in a solution (NO soil) of minerals with known concentration Fig iii. Air bubbled into solution so roots get enough oxygen for cellular respiration iv. Remove minerals(s) or change concentration of mineral(s) and compare to control plant

18 VII. Essential nutrients of plants Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. macronutrients i. 9 out of 17 ii. Need in large (macro) amounts iv. Ca, K, Mg iii. C, N, O, H, S, P (The big six of course) - Calcium (Ca ++ ) - formation of cell walls, combines with proteins to form “glue” of middle lamina, regulate selective permeability - Potassium (K + ) - cofactor ( non-protein chemical compound bound to an enzyme and required for catalysis ) of many enzymes, opening and closing stomata (main solute for osmotic regulation) - Magnesium (Mg ++ ) - component of chlorophyll, cofactor of many enzymes

19 VII. Essential nutrients of plants Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport B. micronutrients i. The other 8 ii. Need in small (micro) amounts iii. Fe, Cl, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, Ni - cofactors of enzymes a. ex. Fe (iron) is a cofactor of many ETC proteins as it accepts and donates electrons a. ex. There is one molybdenum (Mo) for every 16,000,000 hydrogens - Recycled over and over again (need very little)

20 VIII. Quality of nutrients in soil determines quality of your own nutrition Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport Corn growth in nitrogen rich (left) vs. nitrogen poor (right) soil Fig. 32.6

21 IX. Root hairs take up cations using cation exchange Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Cation i. Positively charged ion (K +, Mg ++, Ca ++ ) B. Clay tends to me negatively charges C. Cations stick to clay - keeps them from draining away D. Roots secrete H + (acid) in exchange for another cation - this is why acid rain is not good for soil, it strips away the cation nutrients E. Anions are easier for roots to absorb (NO 3 - (nitrate) vs. NH 4 + (ammonium) - anions drain out of soil easily - unfertile soil, eutrophication Fig. 32.8

22 X. Parasitic plants Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Dodder i. yellow-orange threads ii. No photosynthesis B. mistletoe i. CAN do photosynthesis Both dodder and mistletoe may kill host by blocking too much light or taking too much food iii. Gets organic nutrients from other plants iv. Uses specialized root to tap into vascular tissue ii. Supplements diet by siphoning sap from vascular tissue of host Fig Dodder Mistletoe

23 XI. Carnivorous plants Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Sundew and venus flytrap i. Get nitrogen by digesting flies ii. Sundew uses sticky sugar substance to attract and trap insects iv. Both secrete digestive enzymes onto their prey iii. Venus flytrap has touch sensory hairs that close when touched twice in a row Fig Sundew video

24 XII. Most plants depend on bacteria to supply nitrogen Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Recall the nitrogen cycle i. Plants can’t use N 2 (N N) ii. Nitrogen cycle: Fig Fig iii. Ammonium is a cation (gets stuck to clay and therefore hard to absorb) iv. Plants prefer Nitrates (anion)

25 XII. Most plants depend on bacteria to supply nitrogen Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Recall the nitrogen cycle v. Plants will convert nitrates back to ammonium for amino acid biosynthesis Fig

26 XIII. Legumes house nitrogen-fixing bacteria Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Legumes (plants that produce pods) i. Have nodules on roots filled with Rhizobium Fig ii. Rhizobium - genus of most nitrogen-fixing bacteria in roots of legumes - convert N 2 directly to ammonium, which can be used by plant directly (it’s already inside) - excess leaks into soil making it more fertile a. This is why farmers tend to rotate their crops: one year legume, one year non-legume iii. Plants give organic molecules to Rhizobium (mutualistic)

27 XIV. Genetic engineering plants Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Gene gun i. Used to “shoot” foreign genes into plant cell (or animal cell) ii. DNA integrates into genome iii. Cells now make new protein Fig

28 XIV. Genetic engineering plants Chapters 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport A. Gene gun iv. Many new organisms have been made this way: - virus resistant cotton plants - potato plants that produce their own insecticide - slow spoil tomatoes - Can we get plants to synthesize medicine? Make grain with all eight essential amino acids? Put genes for nitrogen fixation into non-leguminous plants? Insect resistant corn

29 I. Experiments on phototropism led to the discover of plant hormones Chapters 33: Control systems in plants A. Phototropism i. Growth of a shoot towards light - cell on dark side elongate faster Fig AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? ii. mechanism iii. What causes different growth rate? (video)

30 I. Experiments on phototropism led to the discover of plant hormones Chapters 33: Control systems in plants B. Experiment done by Darwin and his son Francis i. Observation - grass seedlings grow toward light only if shoot tips were present: Fig AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation?

31 I. Experiments on phototropism led to the discover of plant hormones Chapters 33: Control systems in plants B. Experiment done by Darwin and his son Francis i. Observation - grass seedlings grow toward light only if shoot tips were present: Fig AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? ii. Conclusion - tip responsible for sensing light - chemical signal must be sent from tip

32 I. Experiments on phototropism led to the discover of plant hormones Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. Follow-up experiments done by Peter Boysen-Jensen i. Experiment: put permeable gelatin block b/w tip and bottom of shoot or impermeable mica Fig AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? ii. Result - phototropism occurred with permeable gelatin iii. Conclusion - chemical signal diffusing through gelatin from tip

33 I. Experiments on phototropism led to the discover of plant hormones Chapters 33: Control systems in plants D. Frits Went extracted the chemical messenger (1926) i. Experiment: Fig AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? - put tip on agar (permeable) block to get chemical signal (hormone) into block - place block on different parts of cut shoot:

34 I. Experiments on phototropism led to the discover of plant hormones Chapters 33: Control systems in plants D. Frits Went extracted the chemical messenger (1926) ii. Conclusion: Fig AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? - blade bends away from side with chemical - chemical stimulates cell to elongate - called the chemical “auxin” (Greek, auxein, to increase) Aside: Not all plants work this way

35 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants A. Affect growth/development by affecting division, elongation and differentiation Pg. 662 AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? B. Trigger signal transduction pathways (just like in animals) i. Turn genes ON/OFF ii. Inhibit or activate enzymes iii. Changes in membrane properties C. Produced in growing parts of plants (apical meristem; young, growing leaves and developing seeds)

36 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? i. Auxins - class of molecules that affects plant growth patterns a. IAA = indolacetic acid - the major auxin of plants b. Phototropism - Side receiving sunlight has reduced auxin concentration - auxin causes shaded side to grow more quickly - IAA is associated with phototropism IAA

37 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? i. Auxin - class of molecules that affects plant growth patterns c. Geotropism (gravitropism) - growth of plant towards or away from gravity - negative geotropism: shoots grow upward, away from gravity - gravity causes auxins to be more concentrated on lower side of horizontal plant and less concentrated on upper side. - cells on lower side elongate (grow) quicker than on upper side…plant bends upward (video)

38 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? i. Auxin - class of molecules that affects plant growth patterns c. Geotropism (gravitropism) - positive geotropism: roots grow toward pull of gravity - auxins have opposite effect in roots - Result: root bends downward - they still concentrate on lower side of a sideways root, but this INHIBITS elongation. Fig. 33.3

39 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? i. Auxin - class of molecules that affects plant growth patterns c. Auxin made in apical meristem of terminal bud - inhibits development of lateral (axillary) buds - mechanism of apical dominance - also made in root apical meristem… inhibit formation of lateral roots Taller seedlings received auxin (Fig. 33.3A)

40 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? i. Auxin - class of molecules that affects plant growth patterns d. How do auxins cause elongation? - hypothesis: they weaken cell walls - stimulate proteins to pump protons (H+) into cell wall - activate enzymes to break H-bonds b/w cellulose fibers - cells swell as more water can now fit within due to cell wall stretching Fig. 33.3

41 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? i. Auxin - class of molecules that affects plant growth patterns e. Other effects of auxins - induces division in vascular cambium (promotes growth in diameter) - produced by developing embryo - promotes fruit growth - some plants develop fruit w/o fertilization if you spray them with auxin

42 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? ii. Cytokinins (kinins) a. Class of growth regulators that promote cell division (cytokinesis) b. Produced mainly in roots c. Effects of kinins are influenced by concentrations of auxins - auxins from terminal bud inhibit axillary bud growth - cut off terminal bud - cytokinins from roots can now activate axillary buds (auxins overpower cytokinins) Fig d. Auxins and cytokinins are antagonistic hormones

43 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? ii. Cytokinins (kinins) e. Other effects of cytokinins - affect root growth and differentiation - delay aging (florists sometimes spray cytokinins onto flowers) - breaking seed dormancy (germination)

44 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? iii. Gibberellins Fig a. History of discovery - Fungus of genus Gibberella - infects rice seedlings, causes them to grow very tall - rice topples over and dies before flowering - Japanese called it “foolish seedling disease” - Japanese scientist discovered chemical released by the fungus that caused disease - named it Gibberellin - it was later discovered to exist naturally in plants Foolish seedling diseased plants Control plants

45 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? iii. Gibberellins b. More than 100 known c. Produced in roots and young leaves d. Stimulates stem elongation and cell division in stems - enhances auxins e. Enhance fruit development sprayed with gibberellins control

46 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? iii. Gibberellins f. Terminate seed and bud dormancy (activate them) g. Induce some biennial plants to flower during 1st year of growth - spray seeds with gibberellins and they germinate regardless of environmental requirements - naturally: when seed absorbs water, embryo triggered to release gibberellins

47 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? iv. Abscisic acid (ABA) a. Inhibits many plant processes - Ex. inhibits germination - must inactivate ABA for germination to occur - inactivation triggered by cold temperature in some seed (winter inactivates for spring germination) - seeds activated by water: water flushes ABA out of seed - prominent in desert seeds after a hard rain: Fig b. Ratio of gibberellins to ABA determines germination in many seeds (antagonistic hormones) c. ABA signals stomata to pump out K + when plant wilts

48 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? v. Ethylene a. History - observed that fruit ripened in sheds with kerosene stoves - hypothesized that heat caused ripening - kerosene stoves were replaced with cleaner-burning stoves - fruit did not ripen as quickly - need to modify hypothesis - ethylene is a gaseous byproduct of burning kerosene

49 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? v. Ethylene c. Ethylene triggers fruit ripening and other aging processes (e.g. apoptosis) b. Plants produce ethylene

50 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? v. Ethylene - ethylene diffuses from fruit to fruit through air (it’s a gas!) d. Fruit ripening (one bad apple does spoil the lot) - triggers enzymatic breakdown of cell walls (softens fruit) - triggers conversion of starch to sugar (sweetens fruit) - new scent and color attracts animals (operant conditioning) to eat and disperse seeds - what would happen if you put fruit in a plastic bag and sealed it? - many fruits are picked green, placed in large tanks, and ethylene is pumped over them for ripening Fig CO 2 inhibits action of ethylene (slows ripening): pick apples in AUTUMN, pump CO 2 over them to inhibit ripening, and sell the following summer

51 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants C. The five major types AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? v. Ethylene - color change e. Falling leaves - leaves lose chlorophyll unmasking other pigments - new pigments made as well - leaves stripped of essential elements before falling off - petiole separates from stem 1. Abscission layer Fig region of separation (parenchyma cells with thin walls, weakened by enzymes) - triggered by increasing levels of ethylene and decreasing level of auxin (antagonistic hormones) 2. Triggered by shortening days

52 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants D. Hormones used extensively in agriculture AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? i. Ex. Low dose of auxins to prevent fruit from falling off before being picked Fig. 33.8

53 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants E. Growth responses and biological rhythms in plants AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? i. Tropisms Fig b. Types a. Orient plant growth toward or away from environmental stimuli 1. Phototropism 2. Gravitropism (geotropism)

54 II. Five major types of plant hormones regulate growth and development Chapters 33: Control systems in plants E. Growth responses and biological rhythms in plants AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? i. Tropisms Fig b. Types a. Orient plant growth toward or away from environmental stimuli 1. Thigmotropism - growth or movement in response to touch (Greek, Thigma, touch) - Ex. Tendril of pea plant i. Grows straight until it touches something ii. Contact causes cell to grow at different rates on opposite sides of tendril (just like phototropism and gravitropism) - slower growth in area of contact - result: plant coils around branch - great for support while heading for sun (phototropism)

55 III. Lichen is not to be confused with plants Chapters 33: Control systems in plants A. Lichens AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? i. Associations of millions of algae or cyanobacteria held in a network of fungal hyphae a. Mutualism is so tight that lichens are named as a single species b. Photoautotrophs supply fungus with food, and fungus gives photoautotrophs a suitable environment to live Fig c. Can live where little or no soil (recall primary succession)

56 IV. Kingdom Fungus Chapters 33: Control systems in plants A. Fungus AIM: How are hormones used by plants in regulation? Fig b. Fungi are heterotrophs that absorb food after digesting with enzymes outside their body a. Greek, mycos, fungi (mycelium, mycorrhizae, etc…) c. Often saprophytes d. Cells have cell wall made of chitin e. Mushroom, mold and yeast f. Most reproduce sexually (fertilization) and asexually (spores or fragmentation) - spend most of life in haploid form g. Mushroom is spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus hyphae


Download ppt "I. Nutrients from soil and air B. 95% of a plant’s dry weight is organic (built mainly from CO 2 ) - plant’s are predominantly built from the air C. Sugar."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google