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Chapter 33 Control Systems in Plants. What Are the Health Benefits of Soy? – Soy protein Is one of the few plant proteins that contains all the essential.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 33 Control Systems in Plants. What Are the Health Benefits of Soy? – Soy protein Is one of the few plant proteins that contains all the essential."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 33 Control Systems in Plants

2 What Are the Health Benefits of Soy? – Soy protein Is one of the few plant proteins that contains all the essential amino acids

3 – Phytoestrogens, a class of plant hormones Are found in soy CH 3 OH HO O OH O Estrogen (Estradiol)Phytoestrogen (Genistein) Chemical structures of a human estrogen and a plant phytoestrogen

4 PLANT HORMONES Experiments on how plants turn toward light led to the discovery of a plant hormone – Plants exhibit phototropism The growth of shoots in response to light Figure 33.1A

5 – Microscopic observations of plants Indicate that a cellular mechanism underlies phototropism Shaded side of shoot Illuminated side of shoot Light Figure 33.1B

6 Showing That Light Is Detected by the Shoot Tip – Charles Darwin (late 1800s) showed that the tip of a grass seedling detects light And transmits a signal down to the growing region of a shoot Light Control Tip removed Tip covered by opaque cap Tip covered by trans- parent cap Base covered by opaque shield Tip separated by gelatin block Tip separated by mica Darwin and Darwin (1880) Boysen-Jensen (1913) Figure 33.1C

7 Isolating the Chemical Signal- (Frits Went 1926) – The hormone Auxin Was determined to affect phototropism Promotes faster cell elongation on the shaded site of the shoot Agar Shoot tip placed on agar block. Chemical (later called auxin) diffuses from shoot tip into agar. Other controls: Blocks with no chemical have no effect. Offset blocks with chemical stimulate curved growth. Control Block with chemical stimulates growth. No light Figure 33.1D

8 Five major types of hormones regulate plant growth and development – Even in small amounts, plant hormones Trigger signal transduction pathways Regulate plant growth and development

9 Auxin Auxin stimulates the elongation of cells in young shoots – Plants produce auxin (IAA) In the apical meristems at the tips of shoots

10 – At different concentrations, Auxin Stimulates or inhibits the elongation of shoots and roots Figure 33.3A, B Roots Stems g/L   10 – 8 10 – 6 10 – 4 10 – Increasing auxin concentration (g/L) Elongation Inhibition Promotion

11 Hypothesis – Auxin may act by weakening cell walls Allowing them to stretch when cells take up water Plasma membrane Cell wall H+H+ 1 2 H+H+ 3 H2OH2O Vacuole Cell elongation Cellulose loosens; cell can elongate Cellulose molecule Cross-linking molecule Enzyme Cellulose molecule Cell wall Cytoplasm H + pump (protein) Figure 33.3C

12 Auxin promotes growth in stem diameter By stimulating the development of vascular tissues and cell division in vascular cambium

13 Cytokinins Cytokinins stimulate cell division Are produced by growing roots, embryos, and fruits Promote cell division

14 Cytokinins from roots may balance the effects of auxin from apical meristems Causing lower buds to develop into branches Figure 33.4 Terminal bud No terminal bud

15 Gibberellins Gibberellins affect stem elongation and have numerous other effects Figure 33.5A

16 Gibberellins Stimulate the development of fruit Function in embryos in some of the early events of seed germination When sprayed at a certain time can produce seedless fruits Figure 33.5B

17 Abscisic Acid Abscisic acid inhibits many plant processes – Abscisic acid (ABA) Inhibits the germination of seeds – The ratio of ABA to gibberellins Often determines whether a seed will remain dormant or germinate

18 Seeds of many plants remain dormant Until their ABA is inactivated or washed away Figure 33.6

19 – ABA also acts as a “stress hormone” Causing stomata to close when a plant is dehydrated

20 Ethylene Ethylene triggers fruit ripening and other aging processes – As fruit cells age They give off ethylene, which triggers a variety of aging processes

21 Fruit Ripening – Ethylene Triggers fruit ripening Figure 33.7A

22 The Falling of Leaves – A changing ratio of auxin to ethylene Is triggered by shorter days Probably causes autumn color changes and the loss of leaves from deciduous trees Leaf stalk Stem (twig) Abscission layer Protective layer StemLeaf stalk LM 20  Figure 33.7B

23 CONNECTION Plant hormones have many agricultural uses – Farmers use auxin To delay or promote fruit drop Figure 33.8

24 – Auxins and Gibberellins Are used to produce seedless fruits – A synthetic Auxin called 2,4-D Is used to kill weeds Has safety questions associated with its use


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