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2-1 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Introductory FLUENT Training Sharif University of Technology Lecturer: Ehsan Saadati Chapter 2 Introduction to CFD

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Introduction to CFD 2-2 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual What is CFD? Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and related phenomena by solving numerically the set of governing mathematical equations – Conservation of mass – Conservation of momentum – Conservation of energy – Conservation of species – Effects of body forces – Etc. The results of CFD analyses are relevant in: – Conceptual studies of new designs – Detailed product development – Troubleshooting – Redesign CFD analysis complements testing and experimentation by reducing total effort and cost required for experimentation and data acquisition.

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Introduction to CFD 2-3 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual How Does CFD Work? ANSYS CFD solvers are based on the finite volume method – Domain is discretized into a finite set of control volumes – General conservation (transport) equations for mass, momentum, energy, species, etc. are solved on this set of control volumes – Partial differential equations are discretized into a system of algebraic equations – All algebraic equations are then solved numerically to render the solution field Fluid region of pipe flow is discretized into a finite set of control volumes. EquationVariable Continuity1 X momentumu Y momentumv Z momentumw Energyh Control Volume* * FLUENT control volumes are cell-centered (i.e. they correspond directly with the mesh) while CFX control volumes are node-centered UnsteadyConvectionDiffusionGeneration

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Introduction to CFD 2-4 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual CFD Modeling Overview Problem Identification 1.Define your modeling goals 2.Identify the domain you will model PreProcessing and Solver Execution 3.Create a solid model to represent the domain 4.Design and create the mesh (grid) 5.Set up the physics (physical models, material properties, domain properties, boundary conditions, …) 6.Define solver settings (numerical schemes, convergence controls, …) 7.Compute and monitor the solution Post-Processing 8.Examine the results. 9.Consider revisions to the model. Problem Identification 1.Define goals 2.Identify domain Pre-Processing 3.Geometry 4.Mesh 5.Physics 6.Solver Settings Solve 7.Compute solution Post Processing 8.Examine results 9.Update Model

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Introduction to CFD 2-5 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual 1. Define Your Modeling Goals What results are you looking for (i.e. pressure drop, mass flow rate), and how will they be used? – What are your modeling options? What physical models will need to be included in your analysis (i.e. turbulence, compressibility, radiation)? What simplifying assumptions do you have to make? What simplifying assumptions can you make (i.e. symmetry, periodicity)? Do you require a unique modeling capability? – User-defined functions (written in C) in FLUENT or User FORTRAN functions in CFX What degree of accuracy is required? How quickly do you need the results? Is CFD an appropriate tool? Problem Identification 1.Define goals 2.Identify domain

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Introduction to CFD 2-6 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual 2. Identify the Domain You Will Model How will you isolate a piece of the complete physical system? Where will the computational domain begin and end? – Do you have boundary condition information at these boundaries? – Can the boundary condition types accommodate that information? – Can you extend the domain to a point where reasonable data exists? Can it be simplified or approximated as a 2D or axisymmetric problem? Problem Identification 1.Define goals 2.Identify domain Domain of Interest as Part of a Larger System (not modeled) Domain of interest isolated and meshed for CFD simulation.

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Introduction to CFD 2-7 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual 3. Create a Solid Model of the Domain How will you obtain a solid model of the fluid region? – Make use of existing CAD models? Extract the fluid region from a solid part? – Create from scratch? Can you simplify the geometry? – Remove unnecessary features that would complicate meshing (fillets, bolts…)? – Make use of symmetry or periodicity? Are both the solution and boundary conditions symmetric / periodic? Do you need to split the model so that boundary conditions or domains can be created? Solid model of a Headlight Assembly Pre-Processing 3.Geometry 4.Mesh 5.Physics 6.Solver Settings

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Introduction to CFD 2-8 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual 4. Design and Create the Mesh What degree of mesh resolution is required in each region of the domain? – The mesh must resolve geometric features of interest and capture gradients of concern, e.g. velocity, pressure, temperature gradients – Can you predict regions of high gradients? – Will you use adaption to add resolution? What type of mesh is most appropriate? – How complex is the geometry? – Can you use a quad/hex mesh or is a tri/tet or hybrid mesh suitable? – Are non-conformal interfaces needed? Do you have sufficient computer resources? – How many cells/nodes are required? – How many physical models will be used? Pyramid Prism/Wedge Hexahedron Pre-Processing 3.Geometry 4.Meshing 5.Physics 6.Solver Settings TriangleQuadrilateral Tetrahedron A mesh divides a geometry into many elements. These are used by the CFD solver to construct control volumes

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Introduction to CFD 2-9 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Tri/Tet vs. Quad/Hex Meshes For flow-aligned geometries, quad/hex meshes can provide higher-quality solutions with fewer cells/nodes than a comparable tri/tet mesh – Quad/Hex meshes show reduced numerical diffusion when the mesh is aligned with the flow. – It does require more effort to generate a quad/hex mesh Meshing tools designed for a specific application can streamline the process of creating a quad/hex mesh for some geometries.

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Introduction to CFD 2-10 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Tri/Tet vs. Quad/Hex Meshes For complex geometries, quad/hex meshes show no numerical advantage, and you can save meshing effort by using a tri/tet mesh or hybrid mesh – Quick to generate – Flow is generally not aligned with the mesh Hybrid meshes typically combine tri/tet elements with other elements in selected regions – For example, use wedge/ prism elements to resolve boundary layers. – More efficient and accurate than tri/tet alone. Tetrahedral mesh Wedge (prism) mesh

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Introduction to CFD 2-11 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Multizone (or Hybrid) Meshes A multizone or hybrid mesh uses different meshing methods in different regions. For example, – Hex mesh for fan and heat sink – Tet/prism mesh elsewhere Multizone meshes yield a good combination of accuracy, efficient calculation time and meshing effort. When the nodes do not match across the regions, a non-conformal interface can be used. Model courtesy of ROI Engineering

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Introduction to CFD 2-12 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Non-Conformal Meshes Non conformal meshes are useful for meshing complex geometries – Mesh each part then join together Non conformal interfaces are also used in other situations – Change in reference frames – Moving mesh applications Non-conformal interface 3D Film Cooling Coolant is injected into a duct from a plenum. The plenum is meshed with tetrahedral cells while the duct is meshed with hexahedral cells Compressor and Scroll The compressor and scroll are joined through a non conformal interface. This serves to connect the hex and tet meshes and also allows a change in reference frame

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Introduction to CFD 2-13 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Set Up the Physics and Solver Settings For a given problem, you will need to: – Define material properties Fluid Solid Mixture – Select appropriate physical models Turbulence, combustion, multiphase, etc. – Prescribe operating conditions – Prescribe boundary conditions at all boundary zones – Provide initial values or a previous solution – Set up solver controls – Set up convergence monitors For complex problems solving a simplified or 2D problem will provide valuable experience with the models and solver settings for your problem in a short amount of time. Pre-Processing 3.Geometry 4.Mesh 5.Physics 6.Solver Settings

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Introduction to CFD 2-14 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Compute the Solution The discretized conservation equations are solved iteratively until convergence. Convergence is reached when: – Changes in solution variables from one iteration to the next are negligible. Residuals provide a mechanism to help monitor this trend. – Overall property conservation is achieved Imbalances measure global conservation – Quantities of interest (e.g. drag, pressure drop) have reach steady values. Monitor points track quantities of interest. The accuracy of a converged solution is dependent upon: – Appropriateness and accuracy of physical models. – Mesh resolution and independence – Numerical errors A converged and mesh- independent solution on a well- posed problem will provide useful engineering results! Solve 7.Compute solution

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Introduction to CFD 2-15 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Examine the Results Examine the results to review solution and extract useful data – Visualization Tools can be used to answer such questions as: What is the overall flow pattern? Is there separation? Where do shocks, shear layers, etc. form? Are key flow features being resolved? – Numerical Reporting Tools can be used to calculate quantitative results: Forces and Moments Average heat transfer coefficients Surface and Volume integrated quantities Flux Balances Examine results to ensure property conservation and correct physical behavior. High residuals may be caused by just a few poor quality cells. Post Processing 8.Examine results 9.Update Model

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Introduction to CFD 2-16 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Consider Revisions to the Model Are the physical models appropriate? – Is the flow turbulent? – Is the flow unsteady? – Are there compressibility effects? – Are there 3D effects? Are the boundary conditions correct? – Is the computational domain large enough? – Are boundary conditions appropriate? – Are boundary values reasonable? Is the mesh adequate? – Can the mesh be refined to improve results? – Does the solution change significantly with a refined mesh, or is the solution mesh independent? – Does the mesh resolution of the geometry need to be improved? Post Processing 8.Examine results 9.Update Model

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Introduction to CFD 2-17 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Models Available in FLUENT 12 Fluid flow and heat transfer – Momentum, continuity, energy equations – Radiation Turbulence – RANS-based models (Spalart- Allmaras, k–ε, k–ω, Reynolds stress) – Large-eddy simulation (LES) and detached eddy simulation (DES) Species transport Volumetric reactions – Arrhenius finite-rate chemistry – Turbulent fast chemistry Eddy Dissipation, non-Premixed, premixed, partially premixed – Turbulent finite-rate chemistry EDC, laminar flamelet, composition PDF transport – Surface Reactions Pressure Contours in Near-Ground Flight Temperature Contours for Kiln Burner Retrofit

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Introduction to CFD 2-18 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Models Available in FLUENT 12 Multiphase flows – Discrete Phase Model (DPM) – Volume of Fluid (VOF) model for immiscible fluids – Mixtures – Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian- granular – Liquid/Solid and cavitation phase change Moving and deforming mesh – Moving zones Single and multiple reference frames (MRF) Mixing plane model Sliding mesh model – Moving and deforming (dynamic) mesh (MDM) User-defined scalar transport equations Pressure Contours in a Squirrel Cage Blower (Courtesy Ford Motor Co.) Gas outlet Oil outlet Three- Phase Inlet Water outlet Contours of Oil Volume Fraction in a Three-Phase Separator

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Introduction to CFD 2-19 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual FLUENT CFD Workflow under Workbench 2 Start ANSYS Workbench Drag the Fluid Flow (FLUENT) system from Analysis Systems group in the Toolbox onto preview drop target shown in the Project Schematic.

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Introduction to CFD 2-20 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Import the Geometry Right-click on Geometry cell A2 and select Import Geometry Import the geometry file (CAD model or DesignModeler.agdb file) You can also link the FLUENT simulation to an existing DesignModeler session.

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Introduction to CFD 2-21 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Generate a Mesh Right-click on Mesh cell and select Edit. – Meshing opens and loads geometry Select Mesh under Model in Outline – Note that Preferences are automatically set for FLUENT, because Meshing was opened from a FLUENT system.

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Introduction to CFD 2-22 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Define Boundary and Cell Zones Create boundary zones using Named selections. – Select the surface which will represent the boundary you wish to set. – Right-click the selection and select Create Named Selection. – Name the selection and click OK. You will also need to define the regions of the flow containing fluid and solid (if any). – Solids are required for conjugate heat transfer calculations only. – More details will be presented later. velocit y inlet

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Introduction to CFD 2-23 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Set Up and Run FLUENT Edit the Setup cell to set up the model options – Boundary conditions – Solver settings – Solution – Post processing Once run, the solution can then be either post processed in FLUENT or data exported to CFD-Post for post processing – Contour and vector plots – Profile plots – Calculation of forces and moments – Animation of unsteady flow results

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Introduction to CFD 2-24 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Demonstration of FLUENT Software Start FLUENT (assume the mesh has already been generated). – Set up a simple problem. – Solve the flow field. – Postprocess the results. Online help and documentation is available on each panel by pressing the help button – Requires that you have the documentation installed and properly connected to your web browser.

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Introduction to CFD 2-25 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Navigating the PC at Fluent Log in to your workstation – Login name: fluent – Password: fluent Directories – Tutorial mesh/case/data files can be found in c:\Student Files\fluent\tut\ – We recommend that you save your work into a central working folder: c:\users – Working folder shown on the desktop is a shortcut to c:\users To start FLUENT and/or Workbench, use the desktop icons. Your support engineer will save your work at the end of the week. It is recommended that you restart FLUENT and/or Workbench for each tutorial to avoid mixing solver settings from different workshops.

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