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Integrated Diesel Particulate Solution Consultants Andrew Alix Rob Ballerstedt Nick Chin John Rice Kevin Wilcox Client Professor Yiannis Levendis.

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Presentation on theme: "Integrated Diesel Particulate Solution Consultants Andrew Alix Rob Ballerstedt Nick Chin John Rice Kevin Wilcox Client Professor Yiannis Levendis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Integrated Diesel Particulate Solution Consultants Andrew Alix Rob Ballerstedt Nick Chin John Rice Kevin Wilcox Client Professor Yiannis Levendis

2 Introduction Typical emissions from a diesel powered truck in Boston (circa late 1990’s) Black Soot in picture is made up of particulate matter Particulate matter posses major health risks if inhaled Particulate Matter

3 EPA Regulations The government is enforcing more stringent emissions regulations on diesel exhaust (effective for 2007 highway vehicle models) - Particulate Matter (PM) - 0.01 [g/bhp – hr] - Nitrous Oxide (NO 2 ) - 0.20 [g/bph – hr] - Non-Methane Hydrocarbons – 0.14 [g/bph – hr] U.S. on-highway diesel engine particle emission regulations since 1988. Amounts are expressed as grams of particulate matter per horsepower-hour.

4 Problem Statement The primary objective of this project was to construct a fully operational diesel particulate filtration system in the Northeastern capstone laboratory Incorporate and optimize the previously developed direct burner method for particulate matter oxidation with aerodynamically regenerated traps Sustain, if not improve, the fuel efficiency of the system initiated by the 2005 capstone group The secondary objective was to determine system requirements for integration into Northeastern’s previously owned 1.6 [L] VW Rabbit Identify constraints of the current laboratory test setup and the system requirements to increase project scale (i.e.- air and fuel flow, temp, pressure, etc) Outline necessary steps for scaled system implementation

5 Project History at Northeastern Late 1990’s Capstone- 2005 Laboratory Design

6 Less thermal energy required to regenerate smaller filter Uniform heat distribution Reliable soot combustion Thermal regeneration solutions of large filters require significant energy Difficult to heat universally (thermal stress and incomplete incineration) Minimal energy consumption for aerodynamic regeneration Regeneration Aerodynamically Regenerated Thermally Regenerated AIR

7 Design Scope (1) Integrate larger Aerodynamically Regenerated Filter with the Thermally Regenerated Filter (2) Incorporate the 0.3 [L] diesel engine with the above mentioned integrated system (3) Outline necessary steps for scaled system implementation into a 1.6 [L] VW Rabbit (1)(2)(3)

8 Particulate Matter Filters Silicon Carbine Ceramic Particulate Filters Secondary Filter Primary Filter AerodynamicallyRegeneratedThermally Regenerated Regenerated

9 Thermal Regeneration Solution Active Regeneration –Direct Burner

10 Direct Burner Integration Design Constraints - Diesel vaporization - Flame quality - Flame sustainability

11 Diesel flow rate = 2.5 [mL/min] Air flow rate = 7.72 [L/min] Flame Conditions Calculated fuel flow rate using the power required to oxidize 1 gram of soot (1.3 kW), and the lower heating value of diesel fuel (43,000 Joules per gram)

12 Assembly Schematic

13 Operating Conditions Engine Conditions –2000 – 2500 [rpm] running speed –2.3 [Nm] Load –Produces 0.8 [gm] of soot every hour Exhaust Flow Conditions –Maximum exhaust temperature of 70 o C –System pressure < 6 [in. H2O]

14 Thermocouple Pressure Gauges DAQ Carrier Air Air Compressor Test Setup

15 Design Testing (1) Pressure was recorded at the primary filter over time to determine effect of soot production (2)Test done to determine the effectiveness of heat tape (3)Complete system regeneration repeatability testing (1) (2)(3)

16 Final Design Assembly Regenerative Air Primary Filter Secondary Filter Fuel Supply Air Carrier Air Supply Combustion Analyzer Engine Glass Syringe Fuel Pump

17 Results Design requires 12.75 grams of fuel to combust 6.4 grams of soot A lower fuel flow rate and a hotter flame improved fuel efficiency Improved fuel efficiency of 15 % over previous burner design Improved fuel efficiency of 94 % over electric thermal regeneration method

18 A single regeneration pulse every 13.5 minutes 200+ o C within the exhaust flow Flow is regulated by a solenoid valve (precise timing) Electrically heated secondary burner Longer period between regeneration Use of heat tape to increase fuel line temperature Flow is regulated by hand operated ball valves (not capable of exact timing) Direct diesel burner used for particulate combustion Scale Comparison

19 Commercial Optimization 150 [mbar] pressure differential is the max allowable across primary filter Engine Manifold: 400 – 600 o C –Allows for the vaporization of burner fuel through the use of a 11.25 inch evaporator tube 94% improvement in fuel economy over previous electric burner Fuel flow rate of 2.5 [mL/min] and air flow rate of 7.72 [L/min]

20 Questions ?

21 Alternative Solutions Mercedes BLUETEC® w/ AdBlue injection (all current diesels, 2007+) Honda uses SRC (selective catalytic reduction) Nox converts Ammonia into Nitrogen & Water (2009 2.2L Accord)

22 Advantages of ART No additional chemicals No prescheduled maintenance Urea

23 Impact of Integrated System Reduction of 110,000 tons of PM annually 2.6 million fewer tons of NO X Emissions 95 % reduction of SO 2 Emissions Reduced risk of premature deaths Fewer cases of respiratory related illness Future economic cost savings (Healthcare, Fuel, etc.)

24 Process Timeline

25 Particulate Matter Most solutions involve the collection and incineration of particulate matter - Solid Carbon with Condensed H-C - PM – particulate matter - PM – particulate matter

26 SAE Papers and Patents SAE Papers –On the effectiveness and economy of operation of ART-EGR Systems that reduce Diesel Emissions – Northeastern University –Filtration Assessment and Thermal Effects on Aerodynamic Regeneration in Silicon Carbide and Cordierite Particulate Filters – Northeastern University –Diesel Emission Control in Review – Corning Incorporated –Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance – National Renewable Energy Laboratory –Reducing Diesel Particulate and NOx Emissions via Filtration and Particulate-Free Exhaust Gas recirculation – Northeastern University & CeraMem Corp. Patents –Filter system for the removal of engine emission particulates - Lepperhoff –Regeneration of diesel engine particulate filter only above low fuels - Lepperhoff –Pulsed, reverse flow, regenerated diesel trap capturing soot, ash, and PAH’s - Levendis –Flow-through particulate incineration system coupled to an aerodynamically regenerated particulate trap for diesel engine exhaust gas - Levendis –Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system for NOx control incorporating a compressed air regenerative particulate control system – Levendis

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