Presentation on theme: "Research on Gas Combustion E. Van den Bulck Departement Werktuigkunde Katholieke Universiteit Leuven."— Presentation transcript:
Research on Gas Combustion E. Van den Bulck Departement Werktuigkunde Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
Selected new research targets on gas combustion at the K.U. Leuven: 1.Enrichment of natural gas with hydrogen. 2.Control of burner outlet flows using small jets.
þHydrogen may become an important fuel in the near future. þBurners and gas appliances will need to be redesigned to cope with the challenging combustion properties of this fuel. An important property is: Enrichment of natural gas with hydrogen E. Van den Bulck & K. Vanoverberghe The very high flame speed.
About the flame speed 1.To stabilise a flame, the air/gas velocity has to match the flame speed. 2.The flame speed of pure hydrogen is about 6,4 times the flame speed of natural gas, e.g., 3 meters/second for natural gas implies almost 20 meters/second for hydrogen! 3.The driving pressure is proportional to the velocity squared, e.g., a 1 mbar fan for a natural gas burner implies a 40 mbar fan for hydrogen!
Flame speed and flame stabilization a 30 KW low-NO x natural gas flame The gas/air velocity is matched by the upstream directed flame speed.
The flame speed of L-gas/H 2 mixtures Today’s applications Tomorrow’s application? Lean combustion lowers the flame speed AND combustion temperature.
Adding hydrogen to natural gas can be seen as the enrichment of natural gas. 1.Adding hydrogen increases the flame speed. 2.Leaner combustion, i.e. increasing the combustion air offsets this increase of flame speed. 3.With lean combustion, the flame temperature drops by about 300 C! Can lean combustion of hydrogen enriched natural gas mixtures lead to near-zero NO x emissions whilst keeping the flame structure the same?
Experimental setup L-gas H2H2 30 kW swirl stabilized flame NO x
First results of experiments Volume fraction of H 2 in L-gas (%) 0204060 Equivalence ratio (%) 50 60 70 80 90 100 46 56 22 56 27 50 8 4 44 <1 40 NO x in mg/Nm 3 (3% O 2 ) CO 2 in g/MJ Kyoto target (80 % of 56)
Selected new research targets on gas combustion at the K.U. Leuven: Enrichment of natural gas with hydrogen. Conclusions: þKyoto goal (-20 % CO 2 ) can be reached by adding 45 % of hydrogen. þZero NO x is not just a bonus. þHigher air to gas ratio’s will need bigger heat exchangers
Control of burner outlet flows using small jets. E. Van den Bulck K. Vanoverberghe & M. Vanierschot Experimental observations: 1.Jets are attracted by nearby walls 2.Jets can be deflected over large angles using secondary control jets
Experimental facility Quartz glass combustion chamber Mass flow controllers 30 and 300 kW twin burners
Experimental gas burners SWIRL Control jets 1.Swirling air and gas 2.Secondary gas injection holes which are used for small control jets Features:
Experimental observation of flow hysteresis induced b/t wall-effect. S = 0..20S = 70S = 90 & S = 0
Computer simulations of flow hysteresis induced by the wall-effect S = 0S = 100 S = 45S = 0S = 70
Wall-effect can be induced by small control jets in stead of swirl A strong axial non- swirling jet can be deflected over 90 degrees by injecting 1% of the flow crosswise into the main jet.
Experimental validation a 30 KW natural gas flame clinging to the refrac- tory bottom of the combustion chamber - no swirl needed.
Selected new research targets on gas combustion at the K.U. Leuven: Control of burner outlet flows using small jets. Conclusions: þMultiple flame structures from the same burner. þSelf adapting burner with respect to, e.g., hum. þMany other applications of active control by secondary jets are emerging.