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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES LECTURER PROF.Dr. DEMIR BAYKA.

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Presentation on theme: "INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES LECTURER PROF.Dr. DEMIR BAYKA."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES LECTURER PROF.Dr. DEMIR BAYKA

2 THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE PURPOSE THE PRODUCTION OF MECHANICAL POWER FROM THE CHEMICAL ENERGY CONTAINED IN THE FUEL

3 INTERNAL versus EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES CHEMICAL ENERGY IS CONVERTED INTO THERMAL ENERGY BY COMBUSTION THERMAL ENERGY IS CONVERTED INTO MECHANICAL ENERGY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES BOTH PROCESSES ARE IN THE SAME CHAMBER EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES THE PROCESSES ARE IN DIFFERENT CHAMBERS

4 EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

5 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

6 HISTORY J.J.E. LENOIR ( ) DEVELOPED THE FIRST MARKABLE ENGINE (1860) 5000 ENGINES WERE SOLD DURING FUEL : COAL-GAS / AIR MIXTURE DURING THE FIRST HALF OF INDUCTION : GAS AND AIR ARE DRAWN INTO THE CYLINDER DURING THE SECOND HALF OF INDUCTION : MIXTURE IS IGNITED BY A SPARK AND THE GAS BURNS AND THE PRESSURE RISES AND THE GAS EXPANDS AND DELIVERS POWER TO THE PISTON

7 LENOIR’S COMBUSTION ENGINE DOWN STROKE –INDUCTION –COMBUSTION –EXPANSION UP STROKE –EXHAUST

8 HISTORY NICOLAUS A. OTTO ( ) EUGEN LANGEN ( ) IN 1867 THEY DEVELOPED THE LENOIR ENGINE THE THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF THE ENGINE INCREASED FROM 5 % TO 11 % AGAIN 5000 ENGINES WERE BUILT AND SOLD IGNITION WAS BY A GAS FLAME

9 HISTORY IN 1876 OTTO PROPOSED A CYCLE WITH 4 PISTON STROKES FIRST STROKE : INDUCTION SECOND STROKE : COMPRESSION THIRD STROKE : EXPANSION FORTH STROKE : EXHAUST BY 1890 NEARLY ENGINES HAD BEEN SOLD

10 COMPARISON OF LENOIR AND OTTO CYCLES OTTO & LANGEN OTTO 4 STROKE HORSEPOWER 2 2 WEIGHT KG (approx.) DISPLACEMENT (liters) 80 5 POWER STROKES/min SHAFT SPEED (rpm) MECH.EFFICIENCY % OVERALL EFF. % THERE WAS AN ENOURMOUS REDUCTION IN THE ; ENGINE WEIGHT ENGINE VOLUME (DISPLACE VOLUME)

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16 VALVE MECHANISM

17 MULTIPLE CYLINDER ENGINES

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20 DIESEL ENGINE IN SEARCH OF AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL ENGINE (COAL) ALFRED DIESEL INVENTED THE COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE (1892). THE ENGINE USED THE SAME THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE AS THE OTTO ENGINE. HOWEVER, COMBUSTION WAS INITIATED BY SELF IGNITION OF THE FUEL INSTEAD OF AN ELECTRIC SPARK.

21 DURING INDUCTION ONLY AIR WAS INDUCED. THIS MEANT THAT THE THROTTLE VALVE THAT WAS USED IN THE OTTO ENGINE WAS NOT NEEDED. THE ENGINE COULD TAKE IN AS MUCH AIR AS POSSIBLE TODAY EXCEPT FOR THE CHEAP SMALL ONES, ALMOST ALL DIESEL ENGINES ARE SUPERCHARGED. AS THE ENGINE IS PUMPED WITH MORE AIR ITS EFFIECIENCY AND POWER INCREASES. THE LIMITS ARE SET BY THERMODYNAMICS AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES.

22 AIR IS COMPRESSED TO HIGHER TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES THAN THE OTTO CYCLE. FOR NATURALLY ASPIRATED DIESEL ENGINES THE TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE OF THE AIR INCREASES TO 900 K AND 40 ATM, RESPECTİVELLY. FOR SUPERCHARGED DIESEL ENGINES THE TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE OF THE AIR MAY INCREASE TO1000 K AND 70 ATM, RESPECTİVELY.

23 TOWARDS THE END OF THE COMPRESSION STROKE THE FUEL IS INJECTED AS FINE ATOMIZED SPRAY. SOME OF THE VAPORIZING DROPLETS FORM COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES AND AUTOIGNITE. SELF IGNITION OF THE FUEL MAY OCCUR IN SEVERAL POCKETS OF COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURE AT THE SAME TIME. THE REST OF THE EVAPORATING DROPLETS RAPIDLY EVAPORATE AND ENTER THE COMBUSTION REACTION WHILE THE REST OF THE FUEL (80 % OR MORE) IS BEING INJECTED INTO THE REACTION ZONE.

24 ALTHOUGH THE COMBUSTION BEGINS BY SELF IGNITION OF SOME OF THE FUEL IT CONTINUES BY THE DIFFUSIVE COMBUSTION OF THE REST OF THE FUEL. THERE ARE TWO IMPORTANT RESULTS : 1.WHEN COMBUSTION BEGINS BY SELF IGNITION IT DOESN’T MATTER HOW MUCH AIR THERE IS OR HOW BIG THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER IS. AUTOIGNITION OCCURS IN LOCAL POCKETS. 2.THE RATE OF THE DIFFUSIVE COMBUSTION IS CONTROLLED BY THE RATE OF THE INJECTION.

25 DIESEL ENGINES CAN BE BIG

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34 4 STROKE CYCLE ENGINE 2 STROKE CYCLE ENGINE

35 Spark Ignition Engines Polyspheric Comb. Chamber

36 Spark Ignition Engines Wedge Type Comb.Chamber

37 Spark Ignition Engines I-head Wedge Type Chamber

38 Spark Ignition Engines Hemispherical Comb. Chamber

39 Diesel Engines (DI) Medium Swirl Open Chamber

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41 Diesel Engines (IDI) Ricardo Swirl Chamber

42 FUEL PROPERTIES GASEOUS FUEL KEROSENE GASOLINE

43 COLLECTION OF HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS WITH SIMILAR DENSITIES EXAMPLE (octane) (mixture)

44 EXHAUST EMISSIONS CARBON DIOXIDE CO 2 CARBON MONOXIDE CO NITRIC OXIDESNO X HYDROCARBONS HC CI ENGINES :SOOT PARTICLES

45 MODERN DESIGN ELECTRONIC CONTROL IGNITION SYSTEMS INJECTION SYSTEMS INDUCTION SYSTEMS MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL OXYGEN SENSORS SPEED SENSORS TEMPERATURE SENSORS PRESSURE SENSORS…….ETC

46 MODERN DESIGN COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE SIMULATION GAS FLOW SIMULATION COMBUSTION MODELLING FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING

47 QUIZ No 2 (800) LIST THE GASES EMİTTED FROM IC ENGINES?

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59 ELECTRIC - HYBRID CARS

60 MERCEDES - NECAR

61 FUEL CELL HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN ARE FED INTO THE FUEL CELL IN THE PRESENCE OF A CATALYST AND AN ELECTRİC CURRENT IS PRODUCED

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63 QUIZ NO : 1 (300) WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE FRENCHMEN WHO INVENTED THE FIRST IC ENGINE ?

64 THE END


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