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Some Experiments on Thermo - Acoustics of RIJKE Tube with Geometric Modifications and Forced Vorticity S.D. Sharma Aerospace Engineering Department IIT.

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Presentation on theme: "Some Experiments on Thermo - Acoustics of RIJKE Tube with Geometric Modifications and Forced Vorticity S.D. Sharma Aerospace Engineering Department IIT."— Presentation transcript:

1 Some Experiments on Thermo - Acoustics of RIJKE Tube with Geometric Modifications and Forced Vorticity S.D. Sharma Aerospace Engineering Department IIT Bombay

2 Scope of Study To develop a test setup consisting of a horizontal Rijke tube driven by a flame for experimental investigation of the thermo-acoustics. To develop a test setup consisting of a horizontal Rijke tube driven by a flame for experimental investigation of the thermo-acoustics. To study the effects of introduction of streamwise vorticity and certain geometric modifications including concentric tubes on thermo-acoustic behavior of the Rijke tube. To study the effects of introduction of streamwise vorticity and certain geometric modifications including concentric tubes on thermo-acoustic behavior of the Rijke tube.

3 Preamble Thermo-acoustic instability appears inside chambers with heat source and mean flow when unsteady heat release is coupled in phase with pressure fluctuations. Such instability gives rise to excitation of acoustic modes resulting in noise. Thermo-acoustic instability appears inside chambers with heat source and mean flow when unsteady heat release is coupled in phase with pressure fluctuations. Such instability gives rise to excitation of acoustic modes resulting in noise. Typical examples include Rocket Motors, Pulsed Combustors, Noisy Industrial Burners and Heat Exchangers. Typical examples include Rocket Motors, Pulsed Combustors, Noisy Industrial Burners and Heat Exchangers.

4 Rijke Tube Rijke tube is the simplest possible device that demonstrates the thermo-acoustics instability. It is a vertical tube with open ends having its length to diameter ratio of about 10. When a wire gauge placed inside at about one fourth the tube length from its lower end is sufficiently heated with flame, a loud noise is produced. The reason for this noise is excitation of acoustic mode due to the coupling between the unsteady heat release and the pressure fluctuations that is enabled by the low speed flow driven by the convective currents. Rijke tube is the simplest possible device that demonstrates the thermo-acoustics instability. It is a vertical tube with open ends having its length to diameter ratio of about 10. When a wire gauge placed inside at about one fourth the tube length from its lower end is sufficiently heated with flame, a loud noise is produced. The reason for this noise is excitation of acoustic mode due to the coupling between the unsteady heat release and the pressure fluctuations that is enabled by the low speed flow driven by the convective currents.

5 Schematics of Rijke Tube Present Test Setup Rijke Model Heated metal mesh / wire gauze

6 Rijke Tube Demonstration

7 Rijke Tubes: Two Different Frequencies with Phase Difference

8 Development of Test Setup Various Tube Configurations Used: Various Tube Configurations Used: L/D=9.23 Port with optical window for viewing flame and LDV measurements

9 L = 705 mm 100 Φ 75 Φ 65 Φ 50 Φ 40 Φ L /D: Concentric tubes arrangement: 40 mm Φ and 65 mm Φ tubes each with L=200 mm and 300 mm inside the 75 mm Φ tube.

10 10.5 mm 31 mm 72 o sweep Delta Fin Vortex Generator at 30 degree angle of attack Stepped collar for fixing vortex generators 6 Contra-rotating 6 Co-rotating 8 Contra-rotating 8 Co-rotating vortex generators vortex generators Vortex Generators Vortex Generators

11 Preliminary Design

12

13 Improved Design

14 Interior Details of Plenum Chamber

15 Improved Design with Insulated Tube

16 Plenum Chamber with Cooling

17 Suction-end of the Plenum Chamber ThermocoupleTwin Blowers Cooling air Flow Orifice meter

18 Instrumentation Pressure Transducers K Type Thermocouple Rotameter

19 Visualization of Vortex Flow

20 Flow Through Vortex Generators

21 Some Observations from Preliminary Experiments A certain flow velocity for a fixed fuel mass flow rate triggers the acoustic instability that results in intense noise. A certain flow velocity for a fixed fuel mass flow rate triggers the acoustic instability that results in intense noise. Hysteresis effects on flame position inside the tube. Hysteresis effects on flame position inside the tube. Introduction of vorticity advances the instability even when the flame is lean and closer to the entry of the tube. Introduction of vorticity advances the instability even when the flame is lean and closer to the entry of the tube. With increase in the equivalance ratio marginal increase in peak pressure and frequency was observed. With increase in the equivalance ratio marginal increase in peak pressure and frequency was observed.

22 Temperature Profile at Various Axial Locations

23 Wall Pressure Distribution (improved setup)

24 Wall Pressures with Vortex Generators

25

26 Wall Pressures Comparison

27 Wall Pressure Spectra

28

29 Vorticity Effect on Temperature

30

31 Frequency Spectra of Pressures Tube=40 Φ, A/F=220, Burner x/L=0.128 P1 P7 P1 P7 Tube=40 Φ, A/F=220, Burner x/L=0.624

32 Burner x/L=0.128 Burner x/L=0.624 Tube=75 Φ, A/F=530 Burner x/L=0.128 Burner x/L=0.624 Frequency Spectra of Pressures Tube=75 Φ, A/F=280 Burner x/L=0.128 Burner x/L=0.624

33 Frequency Spectra of Pressures Tube=100 Φ, A/F=530 at P1 Burner x/L=0.128 Burner x/L=0.624 Tube=100 Φ, A/F=280 at P1 Burner x/L=0.128 Burner x/L=0.624

34 Frequency Spectra for Concentric Tubes 40 Φ, Longer 40 Φ, Shorter A/F=530, Burner x/L= Φ, Longer 50 Φ, Shorter A/F=530, Burner x/L=0.128

35 Wall Pressure Distribution Tube = 40 Φ, A/F=220Tube = 50 Φ, Burner x/L=0.128 Tube = 50 Φ, Burner x/L=0.624 Tube = 65 Φ, Burner x/L=0.128

36 Wall Pressure Distribution Tube = 65 Φ, Burner x/L=0.624Tube = 75 Φ, Burner x/L=0.128 Tube = 75 Φ, Burner x/L=0.624Tube = 100 Φ, Burner x/L=0.128

37 Pressure and Temperature Distributions in Concentric Tubes Axial Pressure Distribution: A/F ratio = 530, Burner x/L=0.128 Radial temperature profile at T3, A/F = 530, Burner x/L=0.128

38 Hysteresis Effect: Vortex Generators on Burner

39

40 Hysteresis Effects: Vortex Generators on Burner

41 Hysteresis Effect: Vortex Generators on Burner

42 Effect of Vortex Ring over Flame

43 Some Remarks 40 and 50 mm diameter tubes had long spatial range of instability for burner positions up to x/L=7. 40 and 50 mm diameter tubes had long spatial range of instability for burner positions up to x/L=7. This range was found to reduce for increasing diameter of the tube. This range was found to reduce for increasing diameter of the tube. Concentric tubes tend to produce thermo-acoustics earlier compared to the plain Rijke tube. Concentric tubes tend to produce thermo-acoustics earlier compared to the plain Rijke tube. In concentric tube, the flame was always blue and the noise levels were amplified for all the cases when burner was inside up to x/L=0.5. In concentric tube, the flame was always blue and the noise levels were amplified for all the cases when burner was inside up to x/L=0.5.


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