Presentation on theme: "Session #1: An Overview Active Learning Initiative University of Alabama Arts and Sciences Active Learner Initiative History, Philosophy, Theory, and Methodology."— Presentation transcript:
Session #1: An Overview Active Learning Initiative University of Alabama Arts and Sciences Active Learner Initiative History, Philosophy, Theory, and Methodology Marvin E. Latimer Jr., Ph.D. Music Education Department Head University of Alabama
Active Learning Initiative Session #1 An Overview: History, Philosophy, Theory, and Methodology Session #2 Learning Outcomes: Articulating our Expectations Session #3 Promoting Active Learning: Toward Achieving Balance in the Classroom Session #4 ALI: Documenting the Process for Departmental Accountability
Who are these people and why are they saying these terrible things? Active Learning Initiative Patrick Frantom, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry Jessica Fordham Kidd, MFA, Clinical Professor and Associate Director of First-year Writing, Department of English Rebecca Johnson, Director of Instructional Technology and New Pedagogies Marvin Latimer, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Music Education and Head of the Department of Music Education Jeffrey Melton, Ph.D., Associate Professor of American Studies and Director of Undergraduate Studies Darren Surman, Ph.D., FTTI, New College
Impetus toward increased levels of accountability: International United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (1998) National Joint Commission for Accountability Reporting (1992) State Accountability legislation in 44 states (2004) Local University of Alabama Department of Arts and Sciences Learner Centered Initiative (2004) Historical Considerations Leveille, D. A. (2005), An Emerging View on Accountability in American Education
University of Alabama Learner Centered Initiative Instituted in 2004 by Dean Olin One of six A&S Initiatives Dr. Joe Benson and Dr. Beverley Roscos 297 participants 2005-2012 2008 LCI matrices mandatory for retention 2012 LCI matrices mandatory for promotion to Full Professor 2013 renamed Active Learning Initiative Historical Considerations
“Our instructional culture focuses not on teaching, but on learning. Our faculty members seek not to simply deliver information but to expand student understanding through dialog, frequent feedback, and direct involvement in the subject area. Our Learner-Centered College initiative focuses on the processes by which a student gains knowledge and understanding: active involvement in the learning experience, gathering and synthesizing information, using and developing critical thinking skills, and problem solving.” Philosophical Considerations University of Alabama A&S Initiatives, http://www.as.ua.edu/home/about_as/as-initiatives/http://www.as.ua.edu/home/about_as/as-initiatives/
A Pragmatic Look at Curricula: What do they know (product)? What do they need to know (product)? How do we get them there (process)? What has been the default mode between: Product oriented curricular modes Process oriented curricular modes Why? Theoretical Considerations Driscoll, A. & Wood, S. (2007), Outcomes-based Assessment for Learner Centered Education
Theoretical Considerations What we know about all human beings: We are hard-wired to learn. We evaluate all sensory experiences, which are then placed into one of two categories. Threat reactions include adrenaline related Fight, flee, freeze responses Benefit reactions include endorphin related Integration responses Thurman, L. & Welch, G. (2000). Bodymind & Voice, Foundations of Education.
Theoretical Considerations We are born with capability/ability clusters: The three umbrella capability clusters: Expressive and interactive Imitative Exploratory and discovery These structures exist in all human beings. They do not need to be taught. In short, we humans are hardwired to learn. Thurman, L. & Welch, G. (2000). Bodymind & Voice, Foundations of Education.
Theoretical Considerations Research has led psychologists to suggest the following human learning dispositions: We learn better in groups than individually. We desire to be involved actively in decisions. We attempt to connect new knowledge to current and past “real life” experiences. We benefit from manipulating our environment. We require multiple modes of communication. We better retain knowledge from non- threatening environments. Thurman, L. & Welch, G. (2000). Bodymind & Voice, Foundations of Education.
Theoretical Considerations Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences: Logical/mathematical Spatial Linguistic Bodily/kinesthetic Musical Personal (interpersonal and intrapersonal) Naturalistic Existential Gardner, H. E. (1983), Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
Theoretical Considerations David A. Kolb on experiential learning: Converger Strong in application of ideas Diverger Strong in imaginative ability Assimilator Ability to create theoretical models Accomodator Ability to be practical and solve problems What are you and how do you know? Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development.
Theoretical Considerations Recent neuroscience—mapping body/brain pathways and benefits of experiential learning: Emotion is the gatekeeper of learning Intelligence is a function of experience Personal meaning is the key to memory Teachers influence input, but only students can derive meaning from sensory information. Such findings support earlier learning theorists who advocate for varied delivery systems. McGeehan J. (2001), Brain Compatible Learning
Theoretical Considerations An obvious assumption based on these and other findings would be that teachers should structure the design of learning objectives, presentation of material, and assessment of outcomes in a way that engages a broad range of human learning dispositions, intelligences, brain pathways, and learning styles. Driscoll, A. & Wood, S. (2007), Outcomes-based Assessment for Learner Centered Education
Methodological Considerations In the United States, and all over the world for that matter, in spite of opportunities for innovation by changing technology and educational research, decades of surveys suggest remarkably little change among colleges and universities in the dominant use of lecture as the primary teaching method and objective summative assessment as the primary tool for student evaluation. Bligh, D. A. (2000), What’s the Use of Lectures.
Methodological Considerations The lecture method is effective for transmitting information. However, it is ineffective for: Changing attitudes about a subject Teaching values associated with a subject Inspiring interest in a subject Promoting thought about a subject Teaching various behaviors such as: Writing skills Verbal skills Use of technology Interpersonal skills What else? Bligh, D. A. (2000), What’s the Use of Lectures.
Methodological Considerations There are many instructional methods. Some are as follows: Lecture Lecture/discussion Demonstration Simulation Collaborative/cooperative learning Case study investigation Role playing Inquiry learning Debate Others? Driscoll, A. & Wood, S. (2007), Outcomes-based Assessment for Learner Centered Education
Methodological Considerations The instructional model will necessarily govern the assessment technique: Formative Assessment Ongoing assessment that provides information about progress, misunderstandings, and need for clarification (p. 86). Summative Assessment The final process that follows the sequence of teaching and learning (p. 88). Driscoll, A. & Wood, S. (2007), Outcomes-based Assessment for Learner Centered Education
“Our instructional culture acknowledges the varied processes by which students gain knowledge and encourages active involvement in the learning process. Our faculty members seek not to simply deliver information but to expand student understanding through dialog, frequent feedback, and direct involvement in the subject area. Our active learning initiative provides resources--workshops, technology, peer support, and outreach efforts--to help faculty build learning environments that strengthen the capacity of students to gather and synthesize information and develop robust critical thinking skills. ” Philosophical Considerations University of Alabama Arts and Sciences Active Learning Initiative, (URL Here)
What is my role as teacher? What is the role of my students? What part of my class fits a particular instructional method? What is the percentage of my class devoted to each specific instructional method? What concepts in my course(s) currently are not being addressed as well as they could be? Could my students benefit from a more varied approach to instruction and assessment? What attributes of my class inhibit my ability to use more diverse instructional methods? Group Discussion